In maxillary anterior region, 2% of patients opted for removable partial denture (RPD), 4% opted for fixed partial denture (FPD) while 5% chose implants. Extraction of tooth in maxillary posterior region had 19% of patients chose RPD, 8% chose FPD and about 5% of them chose implants to replace the missing tooth. Tooth extraction of mandibular anterior recorded 4% of patients opted for RPD and 14% chose FPD while another 3% had chosen implants. Mandibular posterior region tooth extraction had 10% of patients opted for RPD, 22% opted for FPD and 4% opted for implants (Figure 1). Patients perception on agreeing it is mandatory to replace the missing tooth are 9%, 79% strongly agreed while 12% disagreed (Figure 2).
Introduction- The purpose of this paper is to discuss a rarest case of hidden maxillary tooth in infra-orbital space following trauma. Pediatric dental injuries leading to traumatic tooth displacement is common in children, although it very rare and sometimes challenging to diagnose and treat traumatically embedded tooth in vital tissue spaces which may lead to serious complications if ignored. Case report- A 4-year old male child was brought with injuries on his face and mouth and swelling over left side of face, resulting from fall. The intra-oral examination revealed absence of all maxillary incisors. The paranasal sinus view showed a vague tooth-like object embedded in the floor of left orbit.
This procedure was adopted by Whittaker and Bakri.11 The translucency of dentin as noted in the ground section is due to an increase in intratubular mineralization. This increase in mineralization has same refractive index as that of peritubular dentin giving translucent appearance within dentin. This translucency is first noted in the apical part of the tooth because of lesser diameter of dentinal tubules in the root dentin compared to the coronal part. Also lesser number of dentinal tubules are noted per unit area in apical part.14,15 The increase in translucency is generally considered as a physiological change with aging process as proved by Azaz et al 21 in his study of impacted canines. They reported increase in dentin translucency with increasing age, even in impacted tooth which is away from any pathological and functional
With a frame based technique, application to the coordinate system to the skull allows the brain to be described with Cartesian coordinates. The stereotaxic procedure aims at relieving the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. The surgery involves implanting the electrodes in the subthalamic nucleus attached to a device that allows the patient to electrically stimulate the brain through the electrodes. According to the study done by Simuni and Speelman et al (2002), deep brain stimulation is as effective as brain lesions in subduing tremors and has fewer adverse side effects. This suggests that either the stimulation or lesions release tremors have an inhibitory effect on subthalamic neurons, but this hypothesis is yet to be confirmed.
Nowadays endoluminal approach is applied. It uses detachable silicone balloons, self-expanding umbrellas and foam plugs. The risks of neck and tracheal dissection and laryngeal nerve injury are avoided by using this method. Also fetal tumors, like sacrococcygeal teratoma and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) of the lung, were previously removed with open fetal surgery, but currently minimal access instruments are used to disturb blood flow or to lyse fetal tumors to slow their growth. Obstructive uropathy occurs rather frequently (1 in 1000 live births).
TITLE DELAYED ONSET HUGE REFRACTORY MULTILOCULATED CERVICAL PSEDOMENINGOCELE AFTER RETROMASTOID CRANIECTOMY –CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE ABSTRACT Pseudomeningoceles after posterior fossa surgery pose a technical challenge to operating neurosurgeons. Cervical pseudomeningocele is unique in that herniation of neural tissue into pseudomeningocele sac produces catastrophic complications. Patient usually presents with postural headache. Treatment includes extrinsic compression, csf diversion followed by primary operative dural repair if refractory.In our case report we present a rare complication of delayed onset huge refractory multiloculated cervical psedomeningocele after retromastoid craniectomy which was surgically repaired.Detailed
INTRODUCTION Maxillofacial injuries have remained serious clinical problems because of the specificity of this anatomical region.1 Mandible in its vulnerable position and anatomic configuration is one of the most frequent facial bones to be involved in traumatic injuries with resultant fracture even though, it is considered the strongest and most rigid bone in the facial skeleton2 Weakest region of the mandible to fracture is the angle. Approximately 50% of fractures of the mandible involve areas with teeth and are the most important factor in determining where the fracture occurs.3 The presence of third molar is associated with 2-3 fold increased risk of angle fractures compared with the absence of third molar, and are most likely to occur in teens and twenties. This is of clinical interest because this age is most likely to have unerupted third molar.4,5 Mandibular angle fractures follow a pattern common to many injuries and this depends on multiple factors including direction, amount of force, presence of soft tissue bulk, and biomechanical characteristics of the mandible such as bone density,
They differ in morphology and function. There are mainly 4 types of teeth in the human dentition. They are: i. Incisors- • Single, conically-rooted teeth with relatively sharp and thin edges which essentially mean they can be used to make an incision or cut. • Present at the forefront, there are 8 incisors in total; two on each side of the midline on both maxillary and mandibular jaws. • Incisors on either side of the midline are called central incisors and teeth neighbouring them are called lateral incisors.
Ravn found that in 80% of the patients with aplasia in the primary dentition illustrated a similar pattern of aplasia in the permanent dentition.7 By four years of age, maxillary and mandibular incisors, canines and first molars tooth buds must be present. In the current case, radiographic examination revealed absence of permanent maxillary lateral incisor and canine tooth buds. They could be congenitally missing or they can be formed later. This case needs to be followed-up to determine the correlation between agenesis of the primary and permanent teeth. A number of etiologies have been proposed for hypodontia: Genetic: Genetic control plays a more significant role in the etiology of hypodontia because the incidence among individuals connected to hypodontia patients is higher than in the general population.8 Shimizu and Maeda reported that nonsyndromic or familial hypodontia is more common than the syndromic type.9 Environmental factors: Major environmental factors such as infection of the tooth bud or trauma can also be associated with hypodontia.
Surgical mandibulo maxillary fixation (MMF) is a proven method of stabilizing most maxillofacial fractures involving the maxilla and/or mandible . Different surgical options available for treating maxillofacial fractures include open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), open reduction, closed reduction, and orbital reconstruction. Treatment outcomes usually rely on the nature of injury, type of fracture, expertise of surgeon, and devices/technology used . Infection is the most commonly reported complication of surgical treatment. Other less common complications include malunion of fractures, malocclusion, and temporomandibular joint disorder .