Cellular respiration happens in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The three main stages of cellular respiration: 1.Glycolysis - this is the splitting of sugars. It has glucose, a 6 carbon sugar is separated into 2 molecules of a three carbon sugar. This happens in the cytoplasm of the cell. During the process, two molecules of ATP, and of pyruvic acid and 2 electron carrying molecules of NADH are created.
In order for aerobic respiration to occur, the 5 stages that have to take place are glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, Krebs’s cycle, electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis (Notes, 10/5/15). Glycolysis is the splitting down of the sugar molecules into 2 3-carbon molecules. The reactants for this process are the sugar molecule, 2 ATP, 2NAD+, and 4 ADP+Pi. This is the first stage of this cellular process in which takes place in the cytoplasm and it has to occur in order to generate ATP from the substrate level phosphorylation. The products of this stage are passed down into the next stages.
The oxidative decarboxylation of Pyruvate is carried out by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This multi-protein complex is composed of three enzymes; 1) pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2) dihdrolipoyl transacetylase, and 3) dihyrolipoyl dehydrogenase. The intermediate products formed by this complex are not released and remain bound to the enzyme. The breakdown of fatty acids by the β-oxidation pathway is carried out by four separate enzymes found in the mitochondrial matrix; 1) fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 2) enoyl hydratase, 3) β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase 4) β-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. Each cycle of the pathway shortens the fatty acyl-CoA chain by two carbon units.
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I activates bicarbonate by phosphorylation with ATP to form carboxyphosphate. Ammonia then reacts with carboxyphosphate to from a carbamate intermediate. A second molecule of ATP is used to phosphorylate the carbamate intermediate to form carbamoyl phosphate. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I is the first committed step of the urea cycle. As one would expect this enzyme is allosterically regulated.
Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
In our experiment, we were able to synthesize isopentyl acetate by heating a reaction mixture of isopentyl alcohol with excess acetic acid. We were then able to purify the isopentyl alcohol by using the methods of extraction, drying, and distillation. Our synthesis and purification of isopentyl acetate was fairly successful in allowing us to obtain and analyze banana oil. Questions 1. In addition to using excess acetic acid to form the ester, the reaction can also be influenced by removing water from the reaction mixture.
b) Discuss the NADH, FADH2, production steps in the TCA cycle and explain the importance of the TCA cycle to function respiratory chain. The citric acid cycle refers to the first components that create during the cycle’s reactions- citrate / in it are protonated form citric acids. However series of reactions known as tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycles, for three carboxyl groups on its primary 2 intermediates or the kreb cycles, after its discoverer Hans Krebs. Whatever citric cycles is a central driver of cellular respirations, it obtains acetyl co-A produced by the oxidation of pyruvate and originally derived from glucose as its starting material and in a series of redox reactions. Gather a large amount of it is bond energy in form of NADH,
Glycogen must first be degraded by glycogen phosphorylase to form glucose-1 phosphate. The whole process produces three ATP with glycogen as starting material. Due to lack of oxygen, enzyme lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid by NADH (Scanes, 2003). This process also regenerates NAD+ for glycolysis step in ATP formation. However, the built-up lactic acid inactivates the enzymes relating to glycolysis and slows down the process of ATP regeneration.
The DNA gathered by the group bore positive results only on Test for Deoxyribose; compared to the standard solution, which bore positive results on all chemical tests, namely, Test for Deoxyribose, Test for Phosphate, Test for Purines, and test for Pyrimidines. Introduction Nucleic Acid is one of the essential biochemical molecules
Where is the information stored in DNA? a. Deoxyribose sugars b. Phosphodiester bonds c. Phosphate groups d. Nitrogenous bases 24. Acid chyme produced by stomach is neutralized In the intestine by which of the following? a. Pancreatic secretions b. Brush- border enzymes c. Gastric juice 25. In which of the following locations does the development of blood call take place?