Depression And Self-Esteem

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction The Oxford Dictionary (2016) defines depression as the feelings of dejection and despondency. Depression can also be defined as having guilty feelings and lacking of energy, appetite and sleep. According to Beck (1976), there are four levels of depression; minimal depression, mild depression, moderate depression and severe depression. Self-esteem can be defined as the level of confidence in one's own worth or abilities. According to Rosenberg (1965), there are two levels of self-esteem; low self-esteem and high self-esteem. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of depression on self-esteem among IUMW students aged 20-25. Difference in gender is tested to determine the effect on depression…show more content…
Depression can cause different types of feeling such as sadness and lost interest in activities once enjoyed. In this research, depression is measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II) in which consist of 21 items. This inventory, then is divided into four levels; minimal depression, mild depression, moderate depression and severe depression. 1.4.2 Self-Esteem Self-esteem is the evaluation of one’s overall sense of self-worth or personal values. Self-esteem involves in a vast of belief about the self, such as beliefs, motions and behaviours. In this research, self-esteem is measured by the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale. It is a ten-item Likert-type scale with items answered on a four-point scale; from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Five of the items have positively worded statements and five have negatively worded ones. The scale measures state self-esteem by asking the participants to reflect on their current feelings. This scale is then is divided into two levels; high self-esteem and low self-esteem. 1.8 Research…show more content…
Researcher uses BDI-II as it quantifies level of depression. The scale was created in order to describe the participants’ symptoms of depression such as guilt, self-dissatisfaction, mood and many more. BDI-II has been tested for its content and construct validity. This test has a high validity; 0.77 correlation rating was calculated when compared with inventory and psychiatric ratings. This BDI-II positively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, r = 0.71, had a one-week test–retest reliability of r = 0.93 and an internal consistency

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