Nowadays, one of the most prevalent disorders is depression. Depression can be defined as both as a syndrome and a disorder, which it consists of a set of symptoms and episodes that are described in diagnostic systems (ICD-10 DSM-IV). The phenomenological approach of depression includes these symptoms and episodes, due to emotional disorders, psychomotor activity and cognitive and behavioral functions. More specifically, as a syndrome it involves episodes of sadness, loss of interest, pessimism, negative beliefs, low self-esteem, changes in sleep and appetite , loss of sexual interest, behavioural passivity and suicidal thoughts. On the other hand, as a disorder have two types that are the unipolar type and the bipolar type.
Labelling affects individuals to really understand the mental disorder and their consequences. As a result of labelling of mental disorders, people are seen as “being” mentally ill instead of “having” a mental illness (Pasman, 2011). Labelling of mental illness has both positive and negative implications on people who are suffering from a mental disorder. In this essay, the psychological implications for individuals who are receiving a diagnostic label is explained by considering people who are suffering from
Behavioral therapy begins with an assessment of the patient’s obsessional thoughts and impulses and the stimuli that trigger them. The patient is also asked to consider the negative consequences they imagine will occur if they confront the feared stimuli and do not perform their compulsive actions. Exposure starts with only moderately distressing stimuli and only when the patient
Learn to let go According to forgiveness expert Everett Worthington, humans have the tendency to “ruminate” about bad things, bringing them up and mentally chewing on them over and over again. Ruminating has been associated with a number of mental health problems, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression. In nursing, with such a large component of human connection involved, so increases the chances of human conflicts, but whether you’ve been wronged by a patient or colleague, learn to let go and forgive for your own good and not anyone else’s. 6. You are not "just" a
Consistent evasion of the stimuli due to trauma reinforces the existing notion of fear correlating to the said stimuli, causing patients’ brain processes to assume or expect that it is harmful, hindering the input of new information concerning the stimuli. By consistently avoiding it, the fear of the object or setting grows and can possibly stop a person from engaging in social situations or in the worst cases, lead them to stress and suicide if they are unable to cope with the symptoms of PTSD. EPT proposes that the exposure to feared stimuli can change its relationship to the associated networks. However, in order to do so, the fear structure must first be activated so that it can be accessed and then modified (Foa, 2011). Required for input and modification is new information that contradicts the feared beliefs to allow for habituation, and should in no way further reaffirm their fears.
The way the western society viewed depression involved the use of antidepressant or drugs to deal with “a loss of connectedness to others or a decline in social status or personal motivation” (Watters 517). The western ideology regarding depression was that the cause of the depression was an imbalance in serotonin levels. This resulted in the promotion of “the class of antidepressant drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)” (Watters 515). The western version of ideologies of the self resulted in the the metaphor about depression regarding it as a disease where “one’s body betrays one’s feelings” (Sontag 40). In a word association test conducted on caucasian americans, the subjects were to describe or associate words with depression, resulting in many word associations that signified they “were looking inward to describe depression” (Watters 522).
Among the psychological theories of depression, the most effective in treating the sense of guilt and lack of self-confidence are the behavioral theory and the cognitive theory. The first one suggests that depressive symptoms arise from the reduction of positive reinforcers in life. The individual withdraws from activities which are perceived as meaningless. The withdrawal will lead to further reduction of reinforcers, which will result in even more withdrawal. Behavioral therapy, therefore, focuses on the increase of positive reinforcers and decrease of withdrawal actions by helping the patient to interact in a different manner with other people and the environment.
Under this psychotherapy, it is believed that illogical thinking causes psychological problems, while logical thinking causes psychological wellness. For example, if you are having a stressful day you could interpret a comment from a friend incorrectly which could cause you to lash out at that person and damage your relationship. On the other hand, if you are practicing logical thinking you could distance yourself from the situation until you are in a better state of mind to ask your friend what they meant by that comment. The differences between these situations is our cognition. The first scenario follows the two-step model where first something happens and secondly our mood is directly influenced.
Clinical depression is a mood disorder that creates an consistent sense of melancholy or even a lost of interests that could vary from hobbies, family, and friends. Anxiety differs from depression because it is a mood disorder that is identified by excessive feelings of worry that translate into or has a major impact on a person’s daily life.
Finally, instead of focusing on all the errors of each type of people we need to start paying more attention to how a person is unique. Stereotyping causes people to feel lonely and even depressed. It is also dangerous to their environment and their social life. We must keep the stereotypes out of the picture, even if sometimes we can be victims ourselves. Stop judging others before connaitres