They are also a greater risk for developing mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, which they may continue to struggle with into adulthood (Stop Bullying N.d.). Eating disorders or disturbed eating patterns can also become a problem for children who are bullied (Stop Bullying N.d.). This is especially true for girls that are teased about their weight. A study that took place from 2009 to 2010 concluded that teasing of overweight girls increased their risk of developing an eating disorder (Quick, McWilliams, and Byrd-Bredbenner 2013:508). However, the victims are not the only ones effected, the perpetrators and bystanders also experience negative effects.
In the case of Postnatal depression mothers are said to have a more negative affect towards their child, the parents consciousness begins to fade as well as a change in their behaviour. Parents that are seriously affected by this disorder are less likely to interact with their child in a loving way, according to (Leckman et al., 2007: 95) They also seem less prone to interact with the infant in a special way, calling him/her by a nickname, imagining the infant 's future, or idealizing the child.Taking into consideration the lack of affection during postnatal depression there have been many studies that specifically demonstrate the connection between this
Genetics are said to play a role in the potential for dependency. Basically if a parent is a drug or alcohol user the more likely the child will also abuse drugs and alcohol. Studies have shown that abnormalities in brain development are also associated with drug users and the hormones of the body play a big role in this. A nurse can play a big role in eliminating possible stressors in children; therefore, potentially lowering the dependency rate. When a nurse encounters a patient that is young and notices signs of abuse the nurse can take action.
Whether it develops from their school life or from their extra curricular activities they participate in, anxiety will still have similar effects on each child. Physical problems that children experience, due to anxiety, can have a lasting negative impact on the child’s later life. In the University of Michigan’s department of the University of Health Service, describes the effects of a panic attack, that originated from anxiety, by stating, “People with panic disorder have panic attacks with feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning. During the attacks, individuals may feel like they can 't breathe, have lost control, are having a heart attack or even that they are dying. Physical symptoms may include chest pain, dizziness, nausea, sweating, tingling or numbness, and a racing heartbeat” (www.uhs.umich.edu).
Stigma is “... a socio-cultural process by which members of marginalized groups are labeled by other people as abnormal, shameful, or otherwise undesirable” (Michaels, Lopez, & Corrigan, 2012). A 2013 nationwide survey revealed that 46% of Americans believed that the seriously mentally ill were more likely to be dangerous than members of the general public (McGinty, Webster, & Barry, 2014). These negative attitudes are also held by mental health professionals, which most likely results from them “...working with patients when they are in the most disturbed phase of their illness, despite this not being a typical characteristic of everyday mental illness” (Cleary, Deacon, Jackson, Andrew, & Chan, 2012). Society tends to view individual violent acts as a comprehensive representation of the mentally ill as a whole, but this violent depiction of mental illness is inaccurate in most cases. In fact, “...less than 3% to 5% of US crimes involve people with mental illness … [and] fewer than 5% of the 120,000 gun-related killings in the United States between 2001 and 2010 were perpetrated by people diagnosed with mental illness” (Metzl & Macleish, 2015).
According to the textbook, childhood experiences can leave people at the risk of developing acute and posttraumatic stress disorders. The textbook goes on to mention that people who went through abuse, catastrophic at an early age and also those who were younger than 10 when parents got divorced. Also people whose family members have suffered from mental disorders may have an impact on them. As we know that social support is very important to the mental stability of an individual, and those who don’t have strong social supports in life are likely to develop acute or posttraumatic stress disorders in life after witnessing a traumatic event. All these factors are true for Kristine in this movie, since she has witnessed the divorce of her parents at the age of six, she has chances of developing acute or posttraumatic stress disorders, not only has she been through the separation of parents at an young age but also experienced the great abuse in her home by her Father, she comes from a unstable home environment, therefore, she never had a strong social support system.
In fact, these perceptions can even influence this individuals view on his or herself, and this could account for their failure to seek treatment. In fact in a study conducted by the ADAA in 2007, 36% of people report experiencing the symptoms for 10 or more years before actually seeking treatment. This disorder usually is developed through bad social experiences. People with social phobia may have few or no social or romantic relationships, making them feel powerless, alone, or even ashamed, this varies from children to adults. Studies also show that teens and young adults show a higher level of anxiety in certain social situations, while adults show a lower level of anxiety but widespread among various activities.
Reece states “It is not surprising that children who have been neglected early in life are more likely to display attachment disorders, to have difficulty discriminating emotions in others, to be avoidant in peer relationships, and are at risk for long-term relationship problems”. This shows that children who suffer child abuse end up suffering long-term because they are unable to develop relationships and skills necessary to thrive in the world. The article then states several examples of subjects who were abused and how it directly affected their lives as they grew into adults. Another important finding in the article is if there is a link with what type of children are being abused. Reece claims that “child neglect is strongly associated with poverty and with the correlates of poverty, including dependence on public assistance, low parental education, maternal depression, large numbers of children, crowding, and limited resources” (Reece et al).
Depression is a psychiatric disorder that afflicts young people with chronic feelings of sadness or worthlessness—the defining characteristic of the disorder is that it robs a person of the capacity for pleasure. Unhappiness triggered by events is not uncommon in children, but it normally goes away when circumstances change. A child with depression doesn’t recover when events change; her dark mood and lack of interest in things she used to enjoy will persist. Depression can interfere with all aspects of a child’s life, resulting in absences from school, trouble socializing with peers, and, in severe cases, thoughts of suicide. Depression is diagnosed when negative feelings, lack of interest in previous activities, and physical symptoms like fatigue and insomnia persist for at least 2 weeks.
There are a multiple reasons why a teen may have suicidal thoughts that even an adult can face. Some may include substance abuse, physical abuse, or even emotional abuse by their own peers. Each of these can lead to depression which is categorized as a mental health disorder. Often however this is brushed off and just considered normal teen angst. Research done by MedBroadcast has showed that half of 14 and 15 year olds have had feelings of depression, which in many cases leads to
Similarly, another research found that “PPD affects approximately 10%-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development; depressed mothers often display less attachment, sensitivity and harsher or disrupted parenting behaviors.” (Brummelte & Galea, 2015, p. 153). Namely, new parents who have PPD influence not only themselves but also their children. Moreover, postpartum depression impedes the relationship between the couple. According to Cummings et al. (2005), results of the study suggested that parental depressive symptoms were associated with increased marital conflict and insecure marital
The major effect that postpartum psychosis has on the mother, child, or the family members if untreated is death. Victims of PP can hallucinate and not actually realize they are hurting someone until after it is done. It is extremely important to seek help when a parent shows signs and symptoms. The effects on the child are lack of proper care due to the mother’s interest in the baby. Mothers begin to forget or even acknowledge that they have a baby.
Anxiety is embedded within the symptoms of postpartum depression and the research demonstrates data as to why this can be overlooked in many cases (Thurgood, Avery &Williamson, 2009). “This may be why so many cases of PPD are missed, as many clinicians use the Patient Health Questionnaire which covers depressed mood and dysphoria, but not anxiety as their primary screening technique” (Thurgood, Avery &Williamson, 2009) . Indeed, 66% of depressed mothers have a co-morbid anxiety disorder and should be evaluated carefully by their physicians so the appropriate interventions may be utilized. It is important for the physician to distinguish these feelings of anxiety as pathological and not necessarily attributed to being a new mother. Some physicians generalize having anxiety as a result of being a first time mother or being a mom in general, this results in treatment being overlooked.
However, maternal depression can take a large toll on the infant and the relationship they have, but the mother is usually not the only care taker of the baby. Evidence shows that prenatal and postnatal depression can have adverse effects. There is limited information in regards to the father’s mental health and its effects on the infant. Although, it is said that if the environment is more of a stressful one, the likely hood of behavioral problems is higher in children whether they may play a lot of video games or not (Linebarger, D.L.
The main focus of this paper is defining the common clinical problem, and discussing the severity that postpatrum depression poses on infants and mothers. Eisner et al. (2002) argues that postpartum depression can also lead to psychos, which is more susceptible in women who had previous mental health issues such as bipolar. This pycosis requires invention imeadalty as it involves bizarre behaviours, unusal halluicantions a, which can result in the mother causing serious harm or death, to herself or the child. This article was very important as it demonstrated the severity that postpartum depression has on the child and the mother and the they risks that they impose when not intervened.