CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOLOGY 1.0 Plant extraction of Physalis minima 1.1 Preparation of fresh sample extract Physalis minima L. at maturity state was harvested from Kepala Batas, identified and washed with a distilled water. The dried specimen was submitted to the USM Herbarium for future reference. About 200 g weight of leaves were blended finely with 300 mL distilled water using a blender until become a mixture with a small size of leaves. The water mixture of leaves were macerated with 1200 mL methanol and shaken continuously at 250 rpm for 24 hours. The mixtures was filtered with Whatman #1 filter paper and the filtrate was used to repeat the extraction for another two times.
Results and discussion Stirring of L with 4-methylaniline and 4-methoxyaniline in equimolar proportion in water at room temperature for 72 h without any Lewis acid catalyst gives L.H2O and L respectively (Scheme 1). The yield of L.H2O is 90% and that of L 70%. These are obtained in 60% yield when the reactants are refluxed in water for 14 h. But the yield goes on decreasing when increasingly more refluxing time is used. Earlier Moody et al have  studied opening of the epoxide ring in L in connection with their total synthesis of the pentacyclic marine alkaloid ascididemin from 1,10-phenanthroline (phen).
• Injection volume: 20μl • Injection concentration: 1mg /ml • Detection wavelength: 280nm 2.3.6-Isolation and purification of Flavonoids (Genistien, Rutin, Quercetin) by: 184.108.40.206- Preparative TLC plate: Isolation and purification of genistein,rutin, quercetin were carried out by preparative TLC. On a glass plates (20 cm x20 cm) a slurry of 60 gm of silica gel GF 254 suspended in 120 ml of distilled water was applied in 0.75 mm thickness manually by using Jobling laboratory division plate coater. The freshly coated plates were left until the transparency of the layer disappears. After 10 minutes, the plates heated for 1 hour at 110ºC. The completely dried and activated plates are kept in a dry place for use.
Mixture was then cooled to 300c rapidly and left at this temperature overnight (at 550c temperature F(ab)2 was somewhat safe than different proteins). Filtration of coagulate proteins: Filtration of the response was embraced through channel press with the chain fabric as separating help. The encourages were tossed and the filtrate was recuperated for further transforming. Second precipitation of solvent proteins: Ammonium sulfate was added to the filtrate to raise its focus to 30% (particular gravity 1.160). careful blending was attempted with constant mixing.
Sargassum latifolium samples were collected during late spring from the intertidal zone of Hurghada, Egypt (27° 12′ N, 33° 50′ E). The macroalgal biomass was air-dried and milled in a home blender. 1.1. Alginate extraction In the extraction process, milled seaweed biomass (1.5 % w/v) was acidified with 2 % citric acid solution with shaking (200 rpm) for 2 h at room temperature. The residual biomass was separated by filtration and washed with distilled water.
Fraction I was discarded due to the presence of high fatty substances, whereas fraction II was analysed for the free flavonoids in each of the samples. Fraction III of each of the test samples was dried and hydrolysed by refluxing with 7% H2SO4 (10 ml/gm residue) for 5 hours on water bath. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate extracted with ethyl acetate in a separating funnel. The ethyl acetate layer was washed with distilled water till neutrality and dried in vacuum. The residues were taken up in small volumes of ethanol separately and then subjected to various tests for
The scientists who are involved in the primordial soup hypothesis are A.I Oparin of Russia, J.B.S Haldane which was English, Stanley Miller, and Harold Urey. The year the scientists came up the with the primordial soup hypothesis was 1920. The claim that they were making that the origins of biomolecules was from a warm ocean that was supposed to happen about 3.8 billion to 3.55 billion years ago. The evidence that was presented by these scientists were that life came from the ‘’organic soup’’ that was created by with the help of lightning, but the first living organisms from this idea would be heterotrophs. The only way for the heterotrophs to survive was to eat other organisms which were back then autotrophs.
Assignmen#1 Title: Acidification of oceans Name: Attiqa Khaliq Father name: Muhammad Khaliq Roll no: 0061-BH-BIO-T-2014 Subject: Environmental Sciences Submitted to: Dr Faiza Sharif Government College University (Lahore) Acidification of Oceans For millions of years, Earth’s oceans have maintained a relatively stable acidity level. Research shows that a recent and rapid drop in surface pH that could have shocking global consequences through the distortion of the ocean’s acidity. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution fossil fuel-powered machines is used .The result of this industrial revolution has been the emission of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into Earth’s atmosphere. The rapid growth in the use of fossil fuels has increased the amount of global carbon dioxide emissions.
Water is basic for human survival. It has been accounted for that the aggregate sum of water on the planet is around 1400 million cubic km (= 1018 tons) and stays steady (ref. water cycle 207) Apparently, over 97% of this aggregate volume is seawater of the rest 22% is ground water and 97% is ice secured away in the ice sheets and the polar ice top. This clearly leaves under 1% of the supply of crisp water, which takes in the water hydrological cycle, however 50% of this is found in waterways, lakes, and bogs. A large portion of the crisp water is contaminated.
Global Water Cycle. 1. The exchange of water among the ocean, the land and the atmosphere is termed as the hydrologic or water cycle. The sun’s heat evaporates surface water from the ocean and the land, akin to leaving a glass of water in sunlight for a few weeks and observing the changes. Evaporated water enters the atmosphere as vapour and most of this returns directly to the sea as precipation.