Philosophers have long reflected on our ideas of perception and reality. Common sense beliefs about perception include that we directly perceive objects and that we perceive objects as they truly are. John Locke, an English philosopher of the 17th century, challenged both of these beliefs. In this paper, I will explain Locke’s reasoning against these beliefs by illustrating his arguments for the primary quality/secondary quality distinction, as well as the difference between primary and secondary qualities and between the quality and the idea of the quality. I will also raise an objection for one of these arguments, as presented in lecture.
Rene Descartes Mediations, discusses a wide variety of topics such as the concept of God, Dualism, Deception through the senses and many more. In the Second Meditations, Descartes mentions the idea of sense perception and how we use it to understand the information we gain from our experiences. The passage selected will illustrate the idea behind sense perception and the mental processes we use to better understand it. In the passage mentioned above in the Second Meditation, Descartes concludes that sense perception is the root of thinking and other mental processes, such as understanding and doubting. The information we gain from experiencing the world around us originates from our senses.
Epistemology is an area in philosophy in which it is the theory of knowledge. In Descartes’ Meditations, his epistemology is known as foundationalism. It is the foundation of modern skepticism. In Meditations I, the Meditator feels the
According to Sextus Empiricus, seeking knowledge can be achieved in different ways according to the type of philosopher you are. For example, dogmatists are those who claim that they found the truth such as Zeno and Plato. However, academics are those who believe
Finding true knowledge is like knowing what is the real truth of something. Rene Descartes, who is an rationalist, has his views on knowledge which is believing that knowledge is possible only if it is based upon self-evidence and certain principles. Rene Descartes constructed an methodical doubt to find true knowledge which was to doubt and put aside everything that he knew. In his first meditation Descartes discusses how our sense perceptions are able to deceive us. Descartes portrays our senses as a
I. Introduction Understanding philosophy capacitates man to be inquisitive regarding with the relevant arguments about his surroundings. Other than wonder, doubt can also drive man to generate fundamental questions that seek for the truth about himself and the reality. In Rene Descartes’s methodic doubt, he claimed that in order to reveal the truth about everything, we must first doubt everything that we know. On further studies, Peter Abelard supports his claim with a statement, ‘doubt is the road to inquiry, and by inquiry we perceive the truth."
This essay looks at Thomas Nagel’s account of the problem of consciousness i.e., the mind-body problem. I compare both Nagel’s and Colin McGinn's arguments regarding consciousness. Nagel’s argument introduces us to the intractability of the mind-body problem. The focus for Nagel is not to highlight the distinction between mind and body. Nagel employs one to not be so focused on the problem, rather embrace the possibilities regarding the phenomenology of consciousness.
Siyi Lin Philosophy Essay 2/Meditation III Word count: As Descartes mentions in Meditation I, we assume God is an powerful demon but how can we prove that God exists? In Meditation III, he tries to prove the existence of God through two ways. In his first proof, he comes up with two claims: formal reality and objective reality, and the second proof is based on various sources of ideas. Formal reality is the reality or the virtue of an existence. For instance, rock has a degree of formal reality since it exists.
Much like Socrates and King, Hobbes understands the “price” of liberty that an individual can claim through a type of self-sacrifice for the freedom of the community. When Hobbes states that an individual must “lay down his rights”, he defining the individuals courageous ability to evaluate and examine life through the lens of philosophical discourse. The “liberty” of the mind is one way in which Hobbes defines the ability of thoughtful individuals to understand the effects of his own actions in relation to others, which defines the ability to critically evaluate human interactions through logic and reasoning. In philosophy, logic and reasoning help to liberate the mind of the individual by analyzing the internal and external aspects of governance, communities, and human relationships. Hobbes is certainly defining the courageous aspects of philosophy that define the “rights of nature” in human societies, which provide a context for freedom and liberty of individuals through a moral and ethical framework.
In Niccolo Machiavelli’s “The Morals of the Prince” and Plato’s “The Allegory of the Cave,” human nature is presented in different ways addressing the concepts of seeming and being. While Plato stresses the importance of being rather than seeming, Machiavelli reveals human nature is more successful when seeming rather than being. In Plato’s “The Allegory of the Cave,” Socrates emphasizes that the only way to separate what seems like reality and what actually is reality is to experience it in its purest form. Knowledge gained from the senses is nothing more than opinion, and to obtain real knowledge we must use philosophical reasoning. Knowledge already exists inside a soul, but it is crucial that this knowledge be pointed toward the good in order to benefit future rulers.