“The Balance of Truth” was the Katib Chelebi’s last work which he completed in 1656. It consists of several essays about the controversial topics of Islamic doctrine in that times. In his work it is important to figure out that he preferred to stay between the two sides, which were Qadızadelis and Halvetis, of the debates of the seventeenth century. He claimed that such debates and conflicts are meaningless and futile and intelligent man should notice that and not be in either side. In his work, Katib Chelebi was not afraid of critisizing people from every class who were narrow-minded.
In the Groundwork, the notion of the good does not rely on feeling or sensation; rather than it derives from the rational directly. Kant points out that every motive has an intended effect on the world. When desire drives us, we first examine the possibilities that the world leaves open to us, selecting some effect at which we wish to aim. But, if we act in accord with practical moral law, we encounter a significant difference since the only possible object of the practical law is the Good, since the Good is always an appropriate object for the practical law. Viewing the Good as rational consolidates
While logic is firmly rooted in reason, perceptions are just as firmly rooted in one’s senses and can easily be corrupted. Many kinds of faulty logic or perception interfere with our ability to think critically, for example, superstition, argument from ignorance, false analogies, irrelevant comparison and fallacies. Therefore, I believe that perception is certainly not reality and most mistakes in thinking are inadequacies of perception rather than mistakes of logics. Perception is defined as the ability to see, hear or becomes aware of something through the senses (Nature of Logic and Perception). However, since the senses are susceptible to personal interpretation, they are therefore potentially unreliable sources of data.
His philosophy had a massive impact on further development of European philosophy. Kant, an outstanding Dutch philosopher, in all seriousness perceived many of Hume’s conclusions. For instance, that whole material of knowledge we get from experience and that empirical methods of human understanding are not able to provide its objectivity and necessity, and by this, to substantiate the potential of theoretical sciences and philosophy. Auguste Comte’s ideas about some science’ buildings which linked just with the description of phenomena but not with its explanation, and row of another positivist conclusions were based on Hume’s skepticism. On the other hand, further development of knowledge and philosophy confirmed Hume’s anxiety concerning any philosophical conclusions.
As specified prior, Descartes was a scholar who wanted to think in solitude. Furthermore, by making his I think, in this way I am the internal middle of his perspective, he made a model of self-reflection that affected the sum of cutting edge European philosophy significantly. A lot of what later thinkers overemphasized
His works reflect reality and romance, actuality and illusion, the real and fanciful, the natural and supernatural, the literal and the imagined. He was a natural moralist and a philosopher. Hawthorne usually treats Puritanism, not as central theme but as a dark background for the ideas and for experiences, which deeply concerns him. He is not a mystic. He cannot be considered as a transcendentalist, but he was attracted by its free inquiry, its radicalism and its contact with radical life.
The Cartesian axiom declares that there is as much formal reality in the cause of an idea as the objective reality of the idea itself. Spinoza debunks the idea with his axioms of powers: “The power of Thought to think about or to comprehend things, is not greater than the power of Nature to exist and to act.” Spinoza’s emphasis on power in the Short Treatise and the Correction of the Understanding has proven a thorough argument. He expounds his thought in an array of syllogisms, they can be encapsulated in the following: The more reality something has, the more existence it involves. The possible existence Descartes proposes has finite degrees of perfection while necessary existence has infinite perfection. Whatever has the power
Suspension of disbelief is most clearly understood through the view that the rejection of critical faculties or the sacrifice of reason in the development of knowledge. The objective of this suspension as it has different implications based on context: as it is defined in the question, suspension in theatre has the capability to give humans enjoyment or heartbreak which mainly emotional qualities are. However, this end goal may change depending on the area of knowledge in context. For example, the goal of suspension in other art forms like literature may be to teach ethical concepts, so emotional gain is not always the objective. Secondly the title outlines that suspension must be essential to the area of knowledge; hence, the growth of knowledge may not occur unless suspension of disbelief is involved.
1. The difference between Post-Empiricism and Critical Rationalism: Critical Rationalism has been discussed to, as the system of falsification. A point is a form of rationalism insofar as it embraces knowledge (or other psychological state and capabilities) about some specific subject matter, drives from the use of reason or more commonly from the rational nature (Kuhn, 1970:231). Rationalism is the view that rational instincts are the most essential way of obtaining knowledge (Dick, 1993:53). whereas a Post-Empiricism is the desertion of firm empirical approaches by recent empiricists.
The paradigm of Positivism seems to be combined of Rationalism and Empiricism. Positivism focus on a priori knowledge same Rationalism but in difference point, Positivist beliefs in nature of reality that can be verified by science process but don’t belief in the innate. The innate knowledge seems to be skeptically for them and trying to examination about the reality for support warranted beliefs. While Empiricism is rejected the innate knowledge but emphasizes truth-reliable process. It’s look like the one of science process, Such measurement which needs to be reliability and generalize outcomes.