The pressure changes in the four chambers on the heart (two atria’s and two ventricles) allow the blood to continuously flow in one direction. This is also aided by the valves (artioventricular and semi lunar valves). The circulatory system consists of the heart as well. The heart is a complex
When its full the pressure causes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves to open and blood flows into the ventricles. Contraction of each atrium now forces any remaining blood into the ventricles. The ventricles now contract (systole) and the atria relax (diastole). The pressure closes the bicuspid and tricuspid valves causing the first sound of the heartbeat. The contraction of the ventricles opens the semilunar valves, forcing blood into the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Thus, the pericardial cavity allows the heart movement to be flexible. The pericardial cavity surrounds the heart totally except at the inlet and outlet of the cardiac vessels, where they form two significant tubes. One of the tubes serves as an interconnection to the inferior and superior vena cava and the pulmonary veins, whereas the other connects the aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Blood Supply and Innervation of the
The cell’s secretion help on lubricating the heart, preventing heart friction with its surrounding organs during contractions, holding the heart inside the chest and maintaining a hollow space for the heart to expand into when it is full of blood. 1.1.2 Structure of the heart wall The heart wall is composed of 3 layers (figure 3): • Epicardium: As mentioned before, the epicardium is at the same time the outermost layer of the heart wall and the inner wall of the pericardium (visceral layer). It protects and lubricates the
CO2 is then expelled and O2 enters the bloodstream, from there the re-oxygenated blood flows into organs and tissues expelling CO2 from and replacing it with oxygen. The blood finally pumps back to the atrium where the process begins again. (University of Waikato) (See fig.5 ) In humans, blood enters the heart from the posterior and anterior veins vena cava which carries de-oxygenated blood from parts of the body into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood flows into the right ventricle and through the tricuspid valve which shuts when the ventricle is full. The blood exits the heart through the pulmonic valve, into the pulmonary artery and then into the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDS) Cardiovascular diseases comprise ailments that include the blood vessels (veins, arteries and capillaries) or the heart, or together or diseases that disturb the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular system, also named as the circulatory system, is the system that transports blood all over the human body. It is composed of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. It delivers oxygenated blood from the lungs and heart through the entire body by the arteries. Blood drives through the capillaries - vessels located between the veins and arteries.
Abstract Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal has been widely used for heart diagnosis. This paper presents a VLSI based design of high speed and area efficient distributive arithmetic discrete wavelet transform (DA-DWT) for Arrhythmia Detection and its FPGA implementation. The main focus of the work is to filter and detect the QRS complex in the ECG signal and to identify the time and frequency variations. By comparing these variations with that of the variations in the normal ECG waveform one may reach to a conclusion if the patient is suffering from Arrhythmia or not. The DA-DWT is also used to filter the ECG signal so as to detect the ECG signal for Arrhythmia Detection.
What You Should Know About Having Healthy Blood Vessels A complex group of blood vessels, arteries in particular, that supplies the brain with important nutrients and oxygen are known as vertebrobasilar arteries. They are responsible for providing blood, which carries oxygen to the brain structures—occipital lobs, brain stem, and cerebellum. The basic functions of these structures include coordination, consciousness, and vision. So basically, each part is important to achieve and maintain good health. Atherosclerosis or the hardening of the arteries is one of the many health problems with blood vessels which could make the blood to flow adequately to the brain structures.