ABSTRACT To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme will grab on (bind) to one or more reactant molecules. In this experiment we examined how increasing the volume of the extract added to the reaction would affect the rate of the reaction. The enzyme used was horseradish peroxidase which helps catalyze hydrogen peroxide. Using different pH levels, the absorbance rate of the reaction was measured to see at which condition the enzyme worked best. The rates of absorption were calculated using a spectrophotometer in 20 second intervals up to 120 seconds.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate.
Title: Enzymes Abstract: Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions by speeding up the chemicals activation energy. Temperature and pH are just two of the factors that affects enzymes and their involvement with chemicals and the way they function. Throughout this experiment, we conducted a study on peroxidase, which is an enzyme. The following information consist of the recordings of when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH and IRV at the end. Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that are used in reactions in living organisms.
Results Figure 1. Effect of temperature on the reaction rate between catalase and H2O2 Figure 1 shows that the optimum temperature for catalase to catalyze hydrogen peroxide is around room temperature (30℃) as it has a very fast reaction rate (5). The overall trend is that temperatures that differ from 30℃, will decrease the reaction rate. Discussion This experiment supported the hypothesis, since catalase was the most effective with hydrogen peroxide when it was in an environment with a temperature of 30℃.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of peroxidase on rate of reaction, as well as, the varying temperature and pH levels. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions that work by reducing the activation energy for each reaction, causing an increase to the rate of the reaction. One class of enzymes are known as peroxidase. Peroxidase catalyze the oxidation of a particular substrate by hydrogen peroxide. Meaning that it eliminates H2O2 in order to prevent damage to the cells and tissues (Department of Biology University of Tampa 74). Peroxidase is the most reliable and accessible enzyme to use as it can be easily prepared and tested (Ramesh Kumar 1). An enzymes shape is critical
An enzyme is protein that acts as a catalyst. Catalyst is a chemical agent that increases a chemical’s reaction rate by decreasing the activation energy (initial energy). In this experiment we used Turnip Peroxidase as our enzyme. It was primarily designed to find out if changing different factors such as, the enzyme concentration, temperature, pH and an inhibitor could have an effect on the enzyme’s activity.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the experiments for week 5 and week 6 support each other in the further understanding of enzyme reactions. During week 5, the effects of a substrate and enzyme concentration on enzyme reaction rate was observed. Week 6, the effects of temperature and inhibitor on a reaction rate were monitored. For testing the effects of concentrations, we needed to use the table that was used in week 3, Cells. The 3 concentrations of enzymes were 0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, and 2.0 ml of turnip extract, while the substrate consisted of 0.1ml, 0.2 ml, and 0.4 ml of hydrogen peroxide. In a separate tube, the control was made up of turnip extract and guaiacol, known as the color reagent. This was recorded the absorbance every 20 seconds for 3 minutes.
A simple change in temperature, a molecule out of place, and a sudden change in the pH level are just some of the things that can harm an enzyme 's reaction rate (the speed at which a chemical reaction proceeds) (5). To test the reaction rate of an enzyme, a lab was done to simulate what would happen to an enzyme under extreme conditions. The enzyme (represented by a hand) had to catalyze as many substrates as possible (represented by toothpicks) within 60 seconds. The experiment dealt with environmental factors such as extreme cold, presence of other molecules, etc. The lab that was simulated directly correlated to many of the topics discussed in class, like explaining the importance of enzymes and measuring the enzymes’ ability to function under different conditions.
Introduction 1.1 Aim: To determine the kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme through the determination of the optimum pH and temperature. 1.2 Theory and Principles (General Background): Enzymes are highly specific protein catalysts that are utilised in chemical reactions in biological systems.1 Enzymes, being catalysts, decrease the activation energy required to convert substrates to products. They do this by attaching to the substrate to form an intermediate; the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. Then, another or the same enzyme reacts with the intermediate to form the final product.2 The rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions is influenced by different environmental conditions, such as: concentration
The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the effects of the variables: temperature, pH, and enzyme concentration, on the enzymatic reaction rate of catalase and the level at which its products are released, measuring the rate of absorption using the indicator solution guaiacol and a spectrophotometer to develop a hypothesis of the ideal conditions for these reactions. My hypothesis is that the extremes in concentration, temperature and pH will negatively affect the Au rate. This experiment used 11 solutions contained in cuvettes. Each cuvette, once mixed, is placed in spectrophotometer and then a reading taken every 20 seconds. Cuvettes 1, 8, and 10 are used as blanks to zero out the spectrophotometer. They all lack the enzyme to help determine the absorption of just the enzyme.
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
Bio Chem lab Report 04 Enzyme Biochemistry Group Member: Chan Man Jeun Duncan (16002621) Law Sze Man (16000478) Introduction Enzyme is a protein base structure substance in our body. It works at a biocatalyst that will catalyzing the chemical reaction, which helps to speed up the chemical reaction. Enzyme could only function in specific shape, and the shape of enzyme is depending on the environment, therefore it is hard for an enzyme to function well in an extreme environment. The aim of this experiment is to see can the enzyme functions normally in different environment(pH, temperature and salt concentration) via using starch solution, amylase from saliva, 0.5M HCl solution, 0.5M NaOH solution and NaCl solution, and using iodine solution
Introduction In class, a series of experiments were performed that pertained to the enzyme known as catalase, which converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen. Due to peroxide being toxic to the tissues of both plants and animals, both possess the enzyme catalase, which breaks into two non-toxic compounds: water and oxygen gas. Enzymes are proteins that react to certain substrates to create a product, and continue doing so afterwards. Methods and Materials To test reactions between catalase and hydrogen peroxide, groups of three to four people were formed.
Observing the effects of a catalyst on an enzyme’s rate of reaction Leong, M., Kim, E., Nair, A. Achilly, K., 9/22/2015 Introduction: An enzyme is a protein that acts as a biological catalyst. A catalyst increases the rate of reaction by reducing the activation energy required (Reece 2005). Catalase, an enzyme produced by most living organisms, catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2 in our bodies in order to maintain homeostasis.