There is a basic development continuum for concepts of print. The child first determines print has a message, the difference between letter and word, left to right in the English language, return sweep and page orientation. Marie Clay developed an assessment to determine the knowledge base a student has about print. Developing literacy skills involves beginning phonological awareness as well as alphabet knowledge by learning to separate speech into words and to match sounds and letters (Mason & J.Stewart,
Teaching assistant can explain what to do if children can’t read a word, or don’t understand a word: They should teach them to break words down, look for little words inside big words, look for base or root words, prefixes, or suffixes etc; to keep reading or rereading to see if they can get a sense of the definition from the text. Explaining and clarifying should lead to better understanding and gaining confidence in order to better literacy
Their mistakes were highlighted at the margin of the paper and then, the conference with the teacher was based on them. On the other hand, group B’s feedback was based on meaning which included a clarification question about what the person tried to say. Likewise, the conference with the teacher was meaning centered. The results showed that Group B improved significantly in verb accuracy and punctuation. Group A also improved in verb accuracy but by the end of the course, they were using fewer complex sentences because they considered them difficult.
It is argued that silent reading helps comprehension due to focus is on pronunciation rather than meaning in oral reading. (Halladay, 2012, cited in Cologon, 2013). Another advantages of silent reading is mentioned as it is helpful for reading and speech development. The second myth refers to phonological awareness and phonic decoding skills. This is outlook assumes children with Down syndrome without ability to develop their phonological awareness and phonic decoding skills.
Share (1999) convincingly describes how decoding skills are supported by vocabulary, syntactic and semantic understandings. Speece and Cooper (2002) report a connection between early semantic skills and reading comprehension in their study of the connection between oral language and early reading. Decoding is vital because it is the basis on which all other reading instruction builds. If children are unable to decode words their reading will lack fluency, their vocabulary will be restricted, and their reading comprehension will suffer. Explicit, systematic and multi-sensory phonics instruction produces effective decoding skills.
Anderson’s (1984) study revealed that the observed traits on reading interest among children are manifested by reading silently, listening, reading aloud with an emphasis on accurate oral reading, and reading under certain instructional conditions. The study of Guthrie et. al., (2005) revealed that self-initiated behaviors such as wanting to talk to friends about the reading material, choosing to read it, and interest in the topic are intrinsic constructs of reading interest; whereas wanting to get the best grades, making the teacher happy, and getting awards/rewards are the extrinsic motivation construct for interest traits. Added to this, Hidayat and Aisah (2013) reported that the ultimate reading interest trait are behaviors approaching towards reading the book and low interest would be manifested by avoiding the book. In a different setting, Maccoby (1954) revealed the children shows vicarious satisfaction as a trait for interest when the TV program relates to fantasy-themed platforms.
Providing student-written examples would help other students perfect their own writing. Proven in multiple studies, teaching by example is clearly the most effective method. Education professionals John Sweller, Paul Kirschner, and Richard Clark discovered that “exploration practice (a discovery technique) caused a much larger cognitive load and led to poorer learning than worked-examples practice. (Clark)” In previous studies, Sweller showed that learning from examples led to better outcomes: “Algebra students learned more studying algebra worked examples than solving the equivalent problems. (Clark)” The site would also give lower scoring students a goal to accomplish and a sense of pride when they achieve it, consequently raising their grades.
These strategies can include additional elements of a balanced approach. The reading of a book aloud in a classroom setting and pointing at words as the words are spoken aloud provides students with the opportunity to see the spoken word in written context. Konza (2014, 154) notes in some research, oral language is excluded as a key element in learning to read. Although research suggests that oral language difficulties can lead to reading difficulties, therefore it is an important element. Once students understand oral language teachers can commence with working on
Activating prior knowledge and making connections before, during, and after Reading: Learners need to be taught to use their prior knowledge to help them understand a text.They must use that to interact. Students need to be explicitly taught to make text-to-text connections, text-to-self connections, and text-to-world connections. Students need to learn to ask themselves, “What book have I already read or movie have I seen that relates to this text? What is similar to my experiences and the experiences presented in this book? What knowledge do I have that relates to the information in the text?” Miller, 2002, p. 57).
The altering of the student’s pace and level of instruction has proven to have a positive outcome as it relates to his or her achievements in reading. For instance, when the team leader can accommodate the individual instruction level and pace for the student, the outcome is usually high achievement. The regrouping strategy is a “within strategy” and is useful in minimizing heterogeneity in reading (Slavin,