INTRODUCTION Enzymes are biological catalyst that alters the chemical reaction rate without itself being altered which reacts with the substrate and converts the enzyme substrate complex into different molecules – product. Enzyme plays the consequential role in functioning of life process such as for growth, digestion of nutrients, excretion of metabolic waste, energy provider to brain and muscles and thus directly or indirectly involved in every biological processing of life. Apart from numerous life functioning role, enzymes are also used in industry-oriented procedure such as for drug delivery in biomedical research, production of biodiesel in energy sector, production of jams and syrups in food industry, treatment of sewage in waste management
Proteins are complex macromolecules that are formed by elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins composed of one or more polypeptide chains of amino acids. The main functions of proteins are to structure, support, protect, make movement, catalyst, transport and make hormones in human body. In the structural role, collagen and elastin provide support for connective tissue. Actin and myosin are proteins that involved in muscle contraction and movement.
Carrier proteins do this, acting as pumps that require energy, typically ATP, to function. Some examples include the sodium-potassium pump, exocytosis, and endocytosis. All cells have voltages across their plasma membranes, which is electrical potential energy. The voltage across a membrane is called membrane potential, which is dependent on the charge of the area. Two forces drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane: a chemical force, or in this case, or the ion 's concentration gradient, and an electrical force, or the effect of the membrane potential on an ions movement.
What is the effect of temperature on oxygen gas production in a Bos taurus liver catalase reaction, with substrate hydrogen peroxide, measured by a gas pressure sensor? Biological catalysts called enzymes are made by living cells and increase biochemical reactions that take place. Enzymes are globular proteins having a multiplex 3-dimensional structure, can increase the rate of chemical reactions without themselves being changed. Enzymes transform substrates into a product. Enzymes have a region called the active site.
They form our cell membranes. They form our brains and nervous systems. They help transport the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. They provide two essential fatty acids that the body cannot make: linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid). There are three main types of fatty acids: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Each has subtle chemical differences that dictate how the fatty acid behaves inside and out of the body.
In many cases the association process is a part of biological function as in blood clotting or the formation of muscle fibers. Aggregation of proteins also leads to perturbation of the biological function with sometimes serious physiological consequences as in the formation of cataracts in the lens of the eye or amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer’ and other neurological diseases. From a colloid chemistry perspective, protein self-association is a special case of the general problem of colloid stability. There are two important aspects of the protein systems in this respect: first in contrast to colloids in general the system can be obtained in pure form and then represent a true single component. Second the protein has a complex molecular structure and one should expect protein- protein interactions to be highly directional.
1.HEMOSTASIS OVERVIEW Hemostasis is the normal physiological response that prevents significant blood loss after vascular injury which is essential in survival. Hemostasis is a complex process helps close off damaged blood vessels, keep blood in a fluid state and dissolve blood clots following restoration of vascular integrity. Hemostasis is now also known to play an important role in wound healing and endothelial barrier protection and function. (1) The process consists of a complex regulated system mediated by enzymes, activators, inhibitors, platelets, neutrophils, and endothelial cells, which is dependent on a delicate balance among several systems. work together when the blood vessel endothelial cells is injured by mechanical trauma, physical
Essay 112: Vitamin K and the Coagulation Cascade The human blood clotting cascade consists of a tightly regulated network of enzymes designed to contain damage to the blood vessels by means of coagulation, thus restoring vascular integrity. Briefly, when a blood vessel suffers penetrating trauma, blunt force trauma, or an internal rupture the clotting cascade swings into action. The various proteins activate one another culminating in the formation of a clot composed of a platelet plug and cross linked strands of fibrin. The clot, or thrombus, acts as damage control, stopping further loss of blood through the wound. Physiologists divide the clotting cascade into three branches: the extrinsic pathway, consisting of Factors III and
Proteins are amphoteric in nature. Protein Structure Protein has four different structures: Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Functions of Proteins in the human body : Proteins are used for repair and maintenance of body tissues. Also for growth of hair and nails. Proteins provide a major source of energy Proteins are involved in the manufacture of some hormones. Proteins are a major element in the transportation of certain molecules.
A common reaction is to cause molecules of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to be synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) present in the cell. cAMP acts as a second messenger within the cell where it binds to a second receptor to change the function of the cell’s physiology. Lipid-soluble hormones: Lipid-soluble hormones include the steroid hormones such as testosterone, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids. Because they are soluble in lipids, these hormones are able to pass directly through the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and bind directly to receptors inside the cell nucleus. Lipid-soluble hormones are able to directly control the function of a cell from these receptors, often triggering the transcription of particular genes in the DNA to produce "messenger RNAs (MRNAs)" that are used to make proteins that