The third step is uncoating. Uncoating is when the viral enzymes desolve the virus capsid and expose the viral genome to the host cells chemical factory. The fourth step is known as replication. Replication is when the fusion of the virus messenger RNA, the fusion of virus proteins, and the assembly of replicated genomic material and subsequent protein binding. The fifth step is called post-transitional modification.
The measurement was taken at 230nm, 260nm and 280nm. The DNA concentration was calculated by using this formula: DNA (µg/ml) =OD260 x 50 x dilution factor For more accurate reading, we had used NanoDrop™ which directly gave us the DNA concentration. Digestion of DNA with Restriction Endonucleases Two eppendorf tubes were prepared for digestion of plasmid and SOD gene. For plasmid digestion tube, 6µl plasmid DNA, 2µl buffer R, 1µl BamHI, 1µl HindIII and 10µl distilled water were added. While, 5µl of purified PCR product, 2µl buffer R, 1µl BamHI, 1µl HindIII and 11µl distilled water were added into SOD gene tube.
The roles are as follows for the bacterial cells, the structure flagella are the swimming movement of the cell, pili stabilizes the cells during DNA transfer, the capsules are used as protection for the cell when a method of killing or digestion is happening. The cell wall confers rigidity and the shape they have, the plasmic membranes are the barriers and the location for the enzyme systems which produces energy. The ribosomes like animal and plant is the factor for protein synthesis. The other functions like the Chromosomes and the plasmid make up the DNA of the cell. Explain how bacteria cells make energy for cellular processes.
The protein sequence of mcr-1 showed its similarity to the polymyxin-producing bacterium, Paenibacillus spp., which showed the possibility of gene transfer occurring. The mcr-1 gene enables protection from polymyxin. The mechanism that the authors proposed on how the mcr-1 gene confers colistin resistance is that mcr-1 causes a modification in lipid A, present in the lipopolysaccharides of most bacteria, which leads to lessened polymyxin affinity. The lipid A has phosphoethanolamine added to it, which in turn, inhibits the bacteria from any attachment. Q3E: What is the origin of the mcr-1 gene, and what evidence do the authors use to support this
Inside the cell, ara-C rapidly gets activated by many phosphorylation steps to form ara-CTP (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate). When this ara-CTP is incorporated into DNA/RNA, it inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis and triggers cell death. Thus DNA replication for mitosis is affected and the cells
n.d.). DNA samples are submitted to a certified laboratory and undergo the following process (DNA Evidence. n.d.): • Extraction is the process of releasing the DNA from the cell. • Quantitation is the process of determining how much DNA you have. • Amplification is the process of producing multiple copies of the DNA in order to characterize it.
The authors reported that the same factor also partially promotes the formation of distromatic thalli of U. pertusa and other Ulva species, highlighting the potentially important role of thallusin for the normal development of green macroalgae. Pure thallusin strongly induced the differentiation of M. oxyspermum, even at very low effective concentrations between 1 fg mL-1 and 1 ag mL-1 (Matsuo et al., 2005; Gao et al., 2006). Although thallusin can be obtained from bacterial cultivations, Nishizawa et al. (2007) undertook the total syntheses of (±)-thallusin and its analogues to allow a detailed examination of thallusin’s biological activity. Whereas the compound
Introduction A topic we have covered in class that interested me most was on the power of antibiotics, as well as, how bacteria’s resistance to drugs, specifically antibiotics, can evolve quickly. According to what I have learned in class, antibiotics are used to kill bacteria by inhibiting cell-wall biosynthesis, inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, and inhibiting bacterial DNA replication. This also brought us to the discussion of the first antibiotic to be manufactured against illness-induced bacteria during World War II which was Penicillin. The discovery of the antibiotic Penicillin was by the British Bacteriologist Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928. This led me to my essential question for this particular research paper which is to figure
The RNP has a layer of nucleoprotein and is located inside of Rabies. When the rabies virus fuses or connects to host cells it may include interaction with the “G” protein and there may be surface receptors involved. Rabies will then imale the host cell and enter the cytoplasm by the pinocytosis. Virions will then aggravate the large endosomes, the viral membranes will connect with endosomal membranes. But to reproduce messenger RNA’s must be transcribed to allow virus replication.