Ap Biology Synthesis Essay

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1. Write a sentence for each of these mechanisms describing the manner in which the DNA can be transferred from one cell to another.

Transformation: During transformation pieces of genetic instructions are released by a bacterium. Another bacterium, picks up the DNA into its own genome. Bacteria taking up foreign DNA is known as transformation. Transformation implies uptake in bacterial, yeast or plant cell DNA while transfection is the term used in reference of mammalian uptake. Chemical transformation, electroporation or particle bombardment is the typical method of construct into a host cell.

Conjugation: The easiest illustration is to consider this as a version of bacterial sex. In conjugation the two bacterial cells connect, and the male donates a piece of DNA to the female. The piece of DNA was excised from a bacterial chromosome. The pieces are called plasmids. Plasmids are like viruses in that they pass out of one cell and into another, but they have no protein coat or "life cycle" differing from that of their host cell.

Transduction: In transduction, a virus takes a piece of DNA from the bacterial host and incorporates it into its viral genome. After the virus multiplies, many copies erupt from the infected cell. Some or all the
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coli genomic library facilitated the selection for genes conferring the resistance through amplification. One plasmid from the library, plasmid pXV62, provided a high level of resistance for E. coli. Deletion and nucleotide sequence analyses of bacitracin resistance revealed that a single open reading frame, designated the bacA gene, sufficiently caused antibiotic resistance. The bacA gene mapped locus deduced amino acid sequence of the bacA encoded protein suggesting an extremely hydrophobic protein of 151 amino acids with 65 percent reflecting nonpolar amino acids. E. coli cells with plasmid pXV62 have increased isoprenol kinase activity suggesting the bacA gene may confer
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