There are three kinds of DNA with specific functions. First, messenger RNA (mRNA) is responsible for transcribing the information from the DNA. That information is then sent to the ribosomes and cytoplasm. The second, transfer RNA (tRNA) transfers amino acids to the mRNA in a ribosome. The third, ribosomal RNA (rRNA), translates the information from the mRNA and the tRNA.
This organelle can be found both on the rough ER and free in cytoplasm, but the proteins produced in each place have different functions; proteins produced in the cytoplasm are typically used within the cell while proteins produced by the rough ER are usually exported outside the cell. The ribosomes themselves are produced in nucleolus and cells that need a lot of protein have a lot of ribosomes . With larger diameters than microfilaments, microtubules are stiff organelles that help maintain the cell 's shape as part of the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is the structure within the cytoplasm of the cell that helps move organelles inside the cell, therefore microtubules are attributed with the function of intracellular movement . In addition to the cytoskeleton, microtubules also make up the cilia and flagella of the cell.
Summary Endoplasmic reticulum is a eukaryotic organelle that forms interconnected network of cisternae, vesicles and tubules within the cells[1,2]. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes in its membrane, these ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. The ribosome free endoplasmic reticulum also know as smooth endoplasmic reticulum, its functions including lipid synthesis, drug detoxification and regulation of calcium concentration[2,3,4]. Furthermore, the endoplasmic reticulum can be isolated from animal soft by centrifugation method and the production form isolation can be used to study the metabolism of lipid and the recovery
The dispersion of mitochondria in the cell soma is aided by microtubule filaments, which when combined with an actin cytoskeleton, help to divide the chromosomes during cell division; however the segregation of mitochondrial chromosomes is not directly linked to cell division and can occur on its own. Mitochondria have their own genome and maternal mode of transmission or germline. They are also needed for additional functions such as regulating mitochondrial segregation to protect the organelles and to prevent and minimize defects such as the growth of pathogenic mutations that can cause disease. These diseases are known as mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and vary greatly - from neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's to metabolic diseases including cancer, and encephalopathy (brain disease) in infants. The vast array of diseases that can be caused have many differing phenotypes and outcomes, and are largely concentrated to areas that require a high level of energy (metabolic activity).
ER is divided into two types: rough ER, having ribosomes attached to its outersurface, and smooth ER, lacking ribosomes. The two types of ER have different functions in the cell, with rough ER to be mainly involved in protein modification and smooth ER being more of a jack-of-all-trades (many functions). Both types of ER can manufacture new lipids for export to other cellular membranes. (Johnson et al, 2010) The Rough ER is a site of protein
Student’s Name Professor’s Name Subject DD Month YYYY Question Answer Question 1: Section (a): Composition of Nucleosomes The nucleosome is the basic unit of the DNA and forms the building block of chromatin. Chromatin is a complex of the DNA and the cellular histone protein cores forming eukaryotic chromosomes. Structurally, the nucleosome core particle comprises 1.6 left-handed superhelical turns of DNA wound around a protein complex called the histone octamer, which consists of 2 copies each of the core histones attached to the central tetramer H3/H4. The latter is flanked by two H2A/H2B dimers (Kornberg 868). The histone octamer, therefore, is a set of the 8 basic proteins whose fundamental structure of a single molecule includes three
1. What is DNA? DNA i.e. Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid is a material in the human body that determines the hereditary traits of a person pertaining to hair colour, eye colour, skin, body structure, viability to diseases etc. DNA is located in the cells of the human body, wrapped in structures called chromosomes.
Eukaryotic cells contain many important organelles and without them the cell cannot function accurately. With organelles such as the nucleus which directs cell activity and contains DNA, ribosomes which make protein, the vacuole which is used for storage and in order for the cell to survive; the mitochondria. The mitochondria are often described as the energy powerhouse of the cell as organisms need energy to maintain homeostasis. The mitochondria are found in the cell cytoplasm and are double membrane enclosed organelles ‘which is best known for its critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, a pathway that generates many more ATP molecules per glucose molecules than glycolysis’ (John Wiley & sons, 2009) . Mitochondria
n.d.). DNA samples are submitted to a certified laboratory and undergo the following process (DNA Evidence. n.d.): • Extraction is the process of releasing the DNA from the cell. • Quantitation is the process of determining how much DNA you have. • Amplification is the process of producing multiple copies of the DNA in order to characterize it.
DNA derives from nucleic acids. They store genetic information and transfer energy. DNA is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, and they float around in prokaryotic cells. Covalent linkage bond the DNA molecules together between the phosphate and sugar groups to create a polynucleotide. Two of the polynucleotides are twisted to create the shape of a double helix.