Description Theory Of Linguistic Reference

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Introduction: Saeed (2009) states that reference is the entity used to describe the descriptive tokens such as people and places. Reference is significant as it aids us in representing the knowledge of the world. Saeed (2009) also added that names and noun phrases are the typical instances of a linguistic reference. Names are utilized to label or to refer to people and places. There may be no explanation needed, however, context is necessary to identify the people or places mentioned. For instance, if Rihanna is mentioned, she will be referred as the singer. The singer is the description of the reference that is mentioned. According to Reimer and Michaleson (2016), there are several theories regarding the ways by which names refer such as…show more content…
Searle (1958) believes that the object is identified, and then it is clarified that the certain word is the name of the object, which is also based on the certain characteristics of the object. The particular characteristics are reasonably connected to the name, thus indicating its reference. For example, when a parent is teaching their child about something, they would first, point to the object and then say the name of the object that is related to the characteristics such as a round shape, which refer to a ball. In addition to that, Frege (1980) views the meaning of proper names as that they can be indicated by a description or are equivalent to the description. For example, Tokyo is the capital city of Japan. The words ‘capital city of Japan’, is the description of the proper name…show more content…
Kripke (1972) claims that the reason that a name refers to something is because there is a distinctive type of causal relationship between the name and the object. There is a social knowledge behind the name. Causal theory is acceptable as there can be alternative ways to clarify the objects in regards of social knowledge rather than just descriptions. For instance, historical lesson could help the students in referring more to Tokyo, in comparison to only knowing about the description, ‘capital city of Japan’. The object has earned the name from a formal process known as naming or dubbing and the people present during the process will start to use the name and pass it on to other people (Evans & Altham, 1973). Kripke (1972) added that there are two things to consider for any theory of reference. First, the aspect in which a name becomes related to the object and second, other people that are absent from the naming or dubbing process must be able to explain the object so they can refer to
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