Research approach can be categorized into quantitative and qualitative research (Yates, 2004; Creswell, 2009). For this study, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted. The adoption of each of the approaches in any research process come along with their limitations; therefore biases inherent in any of the methods could nullify or neutralize the biases of other methods (Hurmerinta – Peltomaki & Nummela, 2006). Usually, quantitative research conducts a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and research which focus on testing of theory (Bryman & Bell, 2011; Yin, 2008). Conversely, qualitative research emphasizes the words rather than quantification with data.
After that, Dr. Rashed illustrates that the most difficult stages of the qualitative research may be related to the researcher’s experience and there are no stable samples for analysis. Then, he shows the features of data analysis which depend on the researcher because it is a personal process. Data analysis starts with collecting data and this is the most important step which may facilitate the process of analysis. It is a growth process since it accepts more than one way. It can also be considered as a deep critical process.
Both successful and failed projects will be chosen to help understand the meaning of different variables found in the quantitative research analysis and to provide examples to illuminate findings. The successful case studies are created by the marketing team of eYeka and Forrester. The failed cases come from various sources ensuring that all important subjects are covered. The secondary data is used to observe what happens in real projects and how different variables have influenced the projects. Triangulation procedures are used systematically to check the consistency of estimates of key findings obtained from two different methods and to maximize the
Across these waves, we identify five main methods guiding the collection and the analysis of data. Second, we identify methodological issues that are central to OI research, such as how to select, among the various self-referential statements that are made by organizational members, those that can be legitimately considered evidence of OI, and whose perspective counts in gathering evidence of OI, and we compare how published studies have successfully addressed identity-specific research questions outlined above. Finally, this review of published research on OI reveals some degree of ambiguity in professed ontological assumptions and methodological choices in past research. By bringing out more clearly the paradigmatic differences that underpin these studies, and by highlighting their implications for methodological choices, we attempt to reduce uncertainty about the appropriateness of different research design for the questions being investigated. Research methods in OI studies Past research on OI indicates that most studies have adopted one of five fundamental methods, with rare exceptions adopting nonconventional procedures for data collection and analysis (e.g.
ds which is important as more relevant and accurate information can be gathered. Descriptive research describes the associations between different variables such as advertising and sales. The data accumulated here will be mostly gathered by quantitative research methods. This will ensure the data is factual, and presented with actual figures and percentages that will strengthen the reliability of our research. By applying descriptive research the aim is to complete the series of actionable objectives such as: To perform a cost/benefit analysis of sports sponsorship.
2.0. The Qualitative versus Quantitative Research debate As previously shown, quantitative and qualitative methods stem from different ontologic, epistemologic and axiologic assumptions about the nature of research. Traditionally, quantitative methods are predominantly acknowledged within positivism whereas qualitative methods are dominant within the interpretivism or non-positivist studies (Bredillet, 2008). Generally speaking, quantitative methodology is concerned with attempts to quantify social phenomena and collect and analyze numerical data, and the use of statistical procedures to examine group means and variance (Ponterotto 2005; Tuli 2010). Qualitative methodology, on the other hand, is more concerned with understanding the meaning of
Taking an example of a laboratory it should consist of a particular organizational structure and protocols to carry out and document laboratory work. Traceability and integrity of data are also important along with the quality of the data. The type and amount of documentation forms the major difference between GLP and Non-GLP. GLP inspector looks after documentation and to easily find out the following: • Person who has done a study, • The overall procedure on how the experiment was carried out,- • Which procedures have been used in the experiment, and • Any problem faced and if so • How it has been solved. There are few requirements of a GLP system which are as follows: • Responsibilities should be assigned for the management of sponsor, study and quality assurance unit.
The pre-experimental method was used for two main reasons. The first relates to the cause-and-effect relationship that may be claimed from the investigation. Using a quantitative approach “allows the researcher to focus sharply on causal relations” (Neuman, 2007:201). The second relates to the need to explore many factors potentially influencing L2 writing learning. Independent and dependent variables A variable in quantitative research is “a characteristic or attribute of an individual or an organization that can be measured or observed and that varies among the people or organizations being studied” (Creswell, 2009:50).
Clients often need to be made to realize that if a project is to be completed at a certain level of quality, then a certain amount of time and money need also to be invested in the project. Projects that have time restrictions will need to increase the resources assigned to it or have the quality or scope reduced. The well known triple constraint formula is Cost * Schedule=Quality. The Right Balance By understanding the triple constraint and the ramifications associated with adjusting any one of its components, you will be able to plan your projects better, analyze project risks and protect the company from the problems of unrealistic client expectations. You will also be properly equipped to balance out the triple constraint when any adjustment has been made to one or more of its elements.
Researchers will need to have a close involvement with the participants to understand their perspective and interpretation regarding on a situation or phenomenon to develop an in-depth explanation. Qualitative research is done in a wide-angle lens as subjectivity is critical to examines the breadth and depth of phenomena. It is often designs in open-ended questions in order to analyse and interpret the data. The method for qualitative research includes ethnography, interview, historical research, participant observation and textual analysis. (Brennen, 2013) With the strengths of the both qualitative research and quantitative research, triangulation research method will be conducted to enhance and validate the research.