Aspect 3: The effect desertification has on soils. Desertification is defined as the spread of desert conditions into areas which have not previously experienced such conditions. An example of this is the expansion of the Sahel desert, which moves south at an approximate speed of 10 kilometres per
The desertification results in unproductive farmland which increases the pressure to produce food even more. Desertification and climate change in drier areas causes severe water shortages and even droughts. Western culture has created an increase in urbanisation, population and industrialisation,
Thus, when forests are removed, it is less likely to rain. There will also be lesser trees to facilitate more water to infiltrate the ground and funnel water into underground aquifers where it is stored to supply during droughts. Hence, deforestation has resulted in flash flood during heavy rainfall, and without the roots holding the soil, it will eventually lead to soil erosion. Furthermore, the soil will be washed away into rivers when there is heavy rainfall, causing river carrying capacity to be reduced and thus, increasing the risk of floods. Both droughts and floods carry severe consequences as eroding topsoil, flooding rice fields and filling in irrigation canals will constrain food production.
Often, desertification is the result of a number of causes or is provoked by one cause and intensified by others (Darkoh, 1996). Concrete analysis of an environmental situation and of the factors involved will make it possible to find national and international means to prevent and control desertification and ways of restoring the biological potential of the area. Both desertification prevention and control often require a combination of social, economic and technologically coordinated activities, constituting an overall plan of social and economic development for a particular territory. 1.4 Need to Control Desertification Desertification causes great human misery, starvation or malnutrition. Its symptoms are as follows (Sheridan, 1981): i) Degradation of native vegetation due to natural or manmade actions.
The root cause of desertification is poor soil conservation leading to soil degradation. Unsustainable farming methods also contribute to soil degradation. Overuse of chemical fertilizers, failure to employ crop rotation and irresponsible irrigation practices rob the soil of the last of its nutrients. When topsoil is depleted of humus, it 's either too loose or too compacted, both of which can lead to destructive erosion. In a White Paper by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification it is pointed out that the economic impact to land degradation have ranged from “2% of Gross Domestic Product in India to 0.04% of GDP in the USA.” Social impacts are determined by the number of people living in the affected areas and their economic status.
Part of the problem with ocean acidification is human activity. Ever since the industrial revolution commenced, around one third of the carbon dioxide released by human interference has been absorbed by the ocean, which is one of the reasons of the drastic change in climate as well. Without the ocean absorbing carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide n the atmosphere would be drastically higher, with possibly increasing the levels of climate change.The point of the research is to see how will the pH affect the organisms in the marine ecosystem and does carbonation affect an organism’s mass and form. Many organisms that are part of the marine food chain are going to be affected by ocean acidification due the levels of acidity deteriorating the calcium carbonate within the animal. It turns out
Increasing population, intense land cultivation, uncontrolled grazing, and deforestation often lead to, or exacerbate, soil erosion (Tadesse, 2001; Bewket, 2002). These factors undermine agricultural productivity and frustrate economic development efforts, especially in developing countries where there is heavy land dependence (Shiferaw & Holden, 2000; Feoli et al., 2013) in low external-input farming systems (e.g., the Ethiopian
Landslides may cause the loss of lives and properties. Deforestation causes the soil to lose its stability. Decreasing of trees causes there is lack of tree leaves to protect the soil from the collision of raindrops and also causes the lack of tree roots to hold the soil. Thus, the soil is exposed directly to the raindrop. The top layer of soil is easily washed away by the heavy rainfall.
Dynesius and Nilsson 1994) will include the alteration of vegetation that causes downstream habitat effects such as enlargement of floodplains, wetlands and riparian zones. It also causes the collapse of river to ocean estuaries as well as the collapse of river deltas (e.g. Rosenberg et al. 1997), that leads to the water mass loss in rivers, causing a decrease in the quality of the remaining water due to dilution issues of pollution. (NRC 1992, Gillilan and Brown 1997).
Such practices have a negative effect on proper management of natural forest resources and ultimately the land is easily degraded (Asefa 1994). These factors adversely affected natural resources; particularly native forests Deforestation continues to cause environmental degradation in the form of land and water resources degradation as well as loss of native tree species. 2.4 Major Cause of Deforestation Deforestation is caused by what human beings do to the forests and can be accentuated by drought. Generally deforestation occurs when people clear forest for their personal need such as, for fuel, hunting, when they need the land to grow and harvest crops, for building houses, and at times because of religion beliefs (Sucoff, 2003).