Spectrophotometric techniques UV spectrophotometric estimation of DOX is possible due to the presence of polyhydroxyanthraquinone chromophoric group on the 7,8,9,10-tetrahydronaphthacene skeleton. The drug when dissolved in ethanol (95%) shows characteristic peaks at 234 nm, 252 nm, 288 nm, 475 nm and at 530 nm (I.P 2014). Cia and coworkers reported the estimation of entrapment efficiency and drug loading capacity of polybutylcyanoacrylate magnetic loaded DOX nanoparticles (Cai et al., 2009). 2.10.2. Chromatographic
Salbutamol undergoes considerable presystemic metabolism in the intestinal mucosa (sulphation) and hepatic conjugation to form an inactive metabolite that is excreted in the urine. Most (approximately 90%) of the dose administered by aerosol is swallowed, but the 10–15% which is inhaled largely remains as free drug in the airways. The plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) is two to four hours. Salmeterol is long acting, with a duration of action of at least 12 hours, allowing twice daily administration. The lipophilic side-chain of salmeterol binds firmly to an exo-site that is adjacent to, but distinct from, the β2-agonist binding site.
Some examples of other ACE Inhibitors are Enalapril, Quinapril, Captopril and Lisinopril. The oral bioavailability of Tritace is 55%. The absorption is not significantly affected by food and the duration of action is 24 hours (Drugs.com, 2013). 2.0 Physiology of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) Baroreceptors located in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses detect changes in blood pressure. When a drop in blood pressure is detected, the medulla oblongata in the brain stimulates the juxtaglomerular kidney cells to secrete renin.
The spectra were smoothed at Δλ=2nm and divided by the smoothed Δλ=2nm of Ibuprofen at 14μg/ml. The second derivative was calculated for the obtained spectra with Δλ=8nm, the results showed that a standard spectrum of 14μg/ml of Ibuprofen is a suitable divisor. As seen in the spectra in Figure 2, there are two maxima, 238.9nm and 241.3nm, and two minima, 244.5 and 246.0nm. The signals at these wavelengths are proportional to the concentration of Paracetamol in the range 2-24μg/ml. 238.9nm was selected for the determination of mixtures and commercial tablets due to the low standard deviation and appropriate mean
It has C-16 fatty acid (palmitoyl acid) attached via glutamine spacer to lysine at position 26, and substitution of lysine with arginine at position 34 23. Palmitoyl acid binds reversibly to plasma albumin that prevents its degradation by DPP-4 and depot formation at the injection site with slow dissolution is responsible for its prolonged duration of action 24. Clinical Pharmacology The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes (LEAD) program was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of liraglutide in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with lifestyle modifications or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). The LEAD study comprised six randomized, Phase 3 clinical studies including 4456 participants across 40 countries. This includes LEAD-3 (Liraglutide as monotherapy), LEAD-2 and LEAD-1(Liraglutide in combination with one OAD) and LEAD-4 and LEAD-5 (Liraglutide in combination with two OADs) and a Head to Head trial with exenatide BID
The IUPAC nomenclature for haloperidol is 4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)butan-1-one. Figure 1: 2-D structure of haloperidol (taken from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3559) Tacke et al (2008) analysed haloperidol in order to determine the physicochemical properties of the drug. At a pH of 7.4, it was discovered that haloperidol has a distribution coefficient (Log D) of
Pharmaco-therapeutic group: Remedy for inhalation for general anesthesia. Code: АТХ: N01АВ01 Pharmacological properties Pharmacodynamics: Halothane is a drug for inhalation anesthesia from the group of fluorinated aliphatic compounds. Causes the rapid introduction in anesthesia without \or with a minimal
This isoform, as well as eNOS, is Ca2+ dependent (3), (4). The inducible isoform produces large amounts of NO as a defense mechanism, affecting tumoral or infected cells. Moreover, as the induction of the isoform takes place in an oxidative environment, high levels of NO react with O2, forming superoxide anions that kill macrophages and the infectious particles they contain (3). High concentrations of NO can produce interferences in DNA, breaking and fragmenting it. The activation of this isoform does not depend on Ca2+/calmodulin, but is induced in presence of inflammatory cytokines
Children’s Motrin (1) Trade Name of Product: Motrin Distributor of Product: Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc., McNeil Consumer Healthcare Division (2) Uses of the Product: Relieves minor aches and pain related to the common cold, flu, sore throat, headaches, arthritis inflammation, minor post-operative pain, post-immunization and fever; and fever reducer. (3) Copy or Scan of Actual Label: Only ACTIVE Ingredient: (4) Component Name: Ibuprofen (NSAID); C13 H18O2; 206.29 g/mol (5) Systematic Name: A) 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propanoic acid; B) Buren; and C) Nurofen (6) Structural Formula: General Description: (7) Ibuprofen is an organic compound and contain and several other elements. (8) Ibuprofen is a chiral molecule, representing
Its leaves contain a mixture of azadirachtin, salannin, melantriol and nimbin which all have medicinal properties. Azadirachtin is the primary active ingredient with antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antihelmintic and even anti-diabetic properties (Banerjee, Pooja S,2012) Ginger is a flowering plant whose ginger root (rhizome) is widely used as a spice and natural medicine. It has antibacterial, anti-oxidant, antiviral properties and has been used to treat colds, migraines, hypertension etc ( ). The oleoresin from the roots contains “bioactive components” which provide these properties. (Bode AM, Dong
Basic pharmacology of agent used in the treatment of asthma Pharmacodynamics about Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN), a moderately selective beta (2)-receptor agonist similar in structure to terbutaline, is widely used as a bronchodilator to manage asthma and other chronic obstructive airway diseases. The R-isomer, levalbuterol, is responsible for bronchodilation while the S-isomer increases bronchial reactivity. The R-enantiomer is sold in its pure form as Levalbuterol. The manufacturer of levalbuterol, Sepracor, has implied (although not directly claimed) that the presence of only the R-enantiomer produces fewer side-effects. Mechanism of action Salbutamol is a beta (2)-adrenergic agonist and thus it stimulates beta (2)-adrenergic receptors.
d-Amphetamine: Targets the TAAR1 receptor on various types of monoaminergic neurons, increasing neurotransmission in the CNS. The main target is different transporters such as MAO and NET and inhibits them in order to increase the levels of neurotransmitters such as Dopamine. Chlorpromazine: Targets the dopamine receptors D1 to D5 in the CNS and inhibits amphetamine-induced behavioural changes. It has highest binding affinity to D2 receptor. Diazepam: It is a positive allosteric modulator of GABA type A receptors in the CNS, particularly in the limbic system, thalamus, and hypothalamus.
Methadone exists as two enantiomeric forms, R and S (Eap et al., 2002). The most commonly used form of methadone in maintenance treatment is the racemic mixture (RS- methadone) (Groman et al., 1997). It is the R-isoform that gives most of the opioid effects (Eap et al., 2002). Methadone exerts its analgesic and narcotic effects through the µ-OR subtype, and has antagonistic effect at the NMDA receptor (Trescot et al., 2008). The antagonistic effect at the NMDA receptor is believed to be advantageous in preventing induction of tolerance (Callahan et al., 2004).