Pre-school children learn best through play. The child education specialists believe that play is a natural way in which children learn and is the most effective learning instrument for them. The child is then mentally active and experiences a continuous learning process. Play facilitates the transition to higher levels of cognitive development and contributes to a happy and creative childhood. Two of the most recognized cognitive psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, developed theories that addressed cognitive development and learning among children and adolescents.
Piaget was also known for his theories on moral development in children, he has come up with a three-stage theory and has done several studies to further expand upon his research. Moral development is known to develop throughout childhood as children begin to experience disequilibrium and a decrease in their egocentric ways of thinking. The first stage in Piaget’s theory on moral development is what he calls the Pre-moral stage, children in this stage range from birth to five years of age. Pre-moral children are apart of the sensorimotor and pre-operational stages in life, according to his theory on cognitive development. These children are still
Piaget’s theory had also provided insight about how children’s minds develop and how children learn best which is through doing and actively exploring. This has assisted significantly in childcare centres and primary schools. It has helped educators and parents understand how their brains function and what type of learning is best suited for their continual development. Although, many argued that Piaget underestimated the cognitive abilities of children and that the problems he gave where too difficult and the directions were too confusing for the abilities of young children (Woolfolk & Margetts 2016, p 92). Recently researchers have observed that
In this review, the stages in each theory are explored and justified using varieties of authentic sources. Therefore, each theory is explained in detail, and then seminaries and differences presented in tabular form. The first stage in the cognitive development theory by Piaget is sensormotor which signifies the developmental changes occurring from the first two years of birth. According to Piaget, a child in this stage involves in motor skills without the help of symbols. Child receives certain types of knowledge based on his involvement and know-how.
In addition to this, using Piaget’s theory in the approach of understanding that primary children from year 3 to year 6 would be distinguished as concrete operational individuals. Hence, an educator can integrate practical activities in which the children can use items in order to encourage them to explore and to help child develop from a disequilibrium notion, to an equilibrium state. Therefore, educators should understand the significance of concrete operational at primary school so the children could maximally achieve the learning goal in accordance to their thinking level that they acquire to there
follow up studies showed that children who delayed gratification by not eating the marshmallow had better grades, handled stress better and were more confident then those who did not delay. Effects of Subject 's Attention to the Reward How the preschoolers used their attention and the way the marshmallow was presented to them greatly changed the results. How the children thought about the marshmallows was one of the most critical elements in being able to delay. If they concentrated on the marshmallow or stared at the marshmallow how long they would delay would drastically go down. On the other hand, if they thought about something else or did something to distract themselves they delayed much longer.
Parents should let their child be for themselves. Another way how having bad relationship of a teenager with his or her parents can influence depression is when the parents expect too much from their teenage child but he or she fails to satisfy his or her parents’ expectations. Teenagers with Parents who have higher expectations of their teenage child, and who feel a desire to maintain complete control, are doomed to failure. Parents always want what’s best for their child. They want their child to do what’s best as much as possible to the point that the child feel so much pressure just to reach his or her parents’ expectations.
This means that at the core of the theory is the ability of humans to change and adapt to their environment. Piaget posited that we as humans possess two internal cognitive structures called schemata and operations and it is through these concepts that we grow and develop our intellect. Schema is an internal transfer of understanding of a physical or mental action that the child performs. An example of a schema in a young baby would be that of a sucking schema. Piaget believed that each new born child possesses these schemata which enable them to adapt and survive in the environment.
Moreover, children can gain a sense of success from parents’ praise that certain themselves after being capable of managing the tasks with parental guidance mostly. Being authoritative parents, punishments and awards are given to teenagers to motivate them to being diligent for having achievement. In terms of arranging schedule, children are too passive,
Parents play a great role to make sure children are getting the best education. One of the best approaches that can be practise by parents is by using Montessori approach in home. There are certain principles included in the brainy Montessori approach that is very effective in learning process of our children (Isaacs, 2015) Brainy Montessori is a theory found by Maria Montessori. She believed that education for the early stages is the most important and formative. She also said that education in the early stages is not only important for the physical of the children, but also for the psychological aspect.