Within the gender-typical toy with gender-typical color (pink doll, blue train) and gender-atypical toy with gender-atypical color (pink train, blue doll), children were more likely to play with gender-atypical toy that had a gender-typical color for their sex than that did not (Wong, Hines). Specifically, girls prefer pink toys and boys prefer blue toys no matter what kind of toy that is. However, such preference for gender-stereotypical color is not innate but learned. Research shows that there is no preference for pink within the group of children under the age of two. In other words, gender-typical colors that were imprinted by surroundings make children consider that gender-typical colored toys are preferable for them.
Do girls really prefer pink and boys blue? These are questions that LoBue and Deloache set out to determine. Some suggest that since gender-stereotyped color dressing is so prevalent in babies, that infants develop a preference for these colors as they grow up. In studies with preschool children in the United States, the authors found that both boys and girls showed a preference for primary colors. Another study by the authors showed that the color red is preferred by infant
From birth, children are socialized into the stereotypical roles that are linked to their specific biological sex. Studies have shown that the awareness of gender roles have already been perceived by the age of 2 or 3 and deeply embedded by the age of 4 or 5 years. It has also been found that children distinguish these differences in toys and will only play with the “gender appropriate toy” whether there is a cross-gender toy selection due to the positive or negative feedback given by the parents. These perceived notions continue into adulthood where there is a lot more men found in professions such as law enforcement, politics, and military whereas females are mainly found in social work, hospitals, and childcare. This adherence to gender specific roles is evident of the fulfillment of society expectations but not a true reflection of personal preference.
In the beginning, the genders are much the same. Yet, boys in preschool often assign roles to playmates, while girls tend to inquire which role their playmate wants to take on (Gleason & Ely, 2002, p. 139; Sachs, 1987). However, in early adolescence basic differences begin to emerge, as they learn social behavior from their environment. As Blair´s (2000) observed in her study on intermediate adolescents, they mostly mixed in segregated groups “often mimicking and mocking the other gender” (p. 316). This demonstrates that, not only does the linguistic environment of their home environment influence their behavior, but most importantly, their peer socialization also has major effects on their attitudes (Gleason, 2005, p.
The findings of the study by Lori N. Scott demonstrated the creation of a pattern showing that adolescent girls perceived quality of affection decreased at the start of adolescence, but stabilized towards the end. Such findings can be applied to My Virtual Life simulation because they support how children going through puberty tend to separate from their parents and strive for more independence in order to develop their own self. In my MVL I had a male son which also showed similar patterns of behavior .Between the ages of 12 to 17 Kade had a greater tendency to go against the parental decisions. However, as he turned 18 he seemed to appreciate more the parental advice which proves that a parental method of high affection mingled with a clear set of rules creates an environment where the child can create a good quality of attachment to the parents.
According to Joan Scott, one of the main and first theorists of gender studies: "In grammar, gender is understood to be a way of classifying phenomena, a socially agreed upon system of distinctions rather than an objective description of inherent traits. In addition, classifications suggest a relationship among categories that makes distinctions or separate groupings possible". Nonetheless, it seems that even though feminism derives or contributed to the birth of gender studies and inscribed its movement as a military approach, other movements linked to oppression such as the homosexuals and transsexuals can also be considered as gender studies without necessarily being in accordance to the domination of a biological sex on another. It seems that there is a deviation from gender to sexuality and not only biology differentiations. For example, one can argue
They may use clothes and hairstyles and adopt a new first name of their experienced gender. Similarly, children with gender dysphoria may express the wish to be of the opposite gender and may assert they are of the opposite gender. They prefer, or demand, clothing, hairstyles and to be called a name of the opposite gender. Gender Dysphoria is different from gender nonconformity, which refers to behaviors not matching the gender norms or stereotypes of the gender assigned at birth. Examples of gender nonconformity include girls behaving and dressing in ways more socially expected of boys or occasional cross-dressing in adult men.
Gender can be described as more of a spectrum and depending on where you fall on this spectrum may affect the way you ae viewed in society and treated while growing up. Some children know at a very young age that they do not identify with the sex of the body that they were worn with. This is why biology and external genitalia may not always be the best factors to determine the gender of a child. In the article “About a Boy: Transgender surgery at sixteen,” written by Margaret Talbot, she states that “Skylar would put it differently: he believes that, despite biological appearances, he was a boy all along.” Even though this boy was a high school student, relatively young in age, he was well aware that he did not align with the gender that he was born into. In other research such as shown in the film Transgender, there was a very young boy around the age of five or six who identified as a girl.
The text supports this debate by stating that, “the socialization and cognitive perspectives differ in the degree to which they emphasize the role of the social environment, especially reinforcement and modeling of adults and peers, relative to cognitive developmental processes, such as the emergence of children’s gender identity and knowledge of gender stereotypes” (par. 16). Many disagreed to the fact that these are different, but the theorists who researched on this, claim that they have many similarities. Theorists report the ways how the children react and respond to social messages. This marks the shaping of children’s behavior to match gender cultural gender role norms (par.
Every culture has different guidelines about what is suitable for males and females and family members may socialize babies in gendered ways without consciously following that path. For example, in a modern society, the colour pink is associated with girls and the colour blue with boys. Even as tiny babies, boys and girls are dressed differently according to what is considered ‘appropriate’ to the respective sexes. Even parents who strive to achieve a less ‘gendered’ parenting style unconsciously reinforce gender roles. A family structure acts as the most important agent of gender socialization for children and adolescents as it serves as the centre of a child’s life.