The establishments of language improvement may have been laid amid the sensorimotor stage, yet it is the rise of language that is one of the real signs of the preoperational phase of advancement. Youngsters turn out to be a great deal more gifted at imagine play amid this phase of improvement, yet still ponder about their general
TODDLER Toddler Social - Emotional Development What is the one most important skill that is needed for us to socialize with each other effectively? Is it the need to have language or is it being able to understand other’s as well as one’s own emotions? While physical development as well as language development (which we will look at in the next segment when we talk about cognitive development of a toddler) is important, it is also important for a child to not only learn how to interact with others and understand their emotions but also to control one’s own emotions. This will largely determine how many positive and rewarding relationships the toddler would be able to maintain growing up.
Child Development focuses on an individual’s physical, cognitive, emotional and social growth and change from birth through adolescence. Many psychologists contributed to the study of child development, but the focus will be on Erikson, Piaget, and Vygotsky, their theories and how to apply them into practice. Erik Erikson was influenced from Freud’s psychosexual theory, but grew off of his theory and introduced the psychosocial theory, taking a child’s environment and culture into consideration. With this, he added three more stages to Freud’s, organizing his psychosocial theory into eight stages. The first stage is trust versus mistrust, which emphasizes that infants rely on their parents to help them develop a sense of security and stability,
The main concern of this stage is controlling bladder and bowel movement. Children who succeed at this stage develop sense of capability and those who have problem at this stage may develop anal fixation. In psychosocial development Erikson called this stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt stage. As he said children develop self sufficiency by controlling activities such as eating , toilet training and talking. Those who succeed this stage develop a sense of development while those struggle will be later doubting themselves.
Soon the infant will grow to become a toddler and they reach the second stage known as Autonomy vs. Shame. This stage ranges from two years of age to three and allows the toddler to learn right from wrong and for the toddler to feel pride in themselves. During this stage, the toddler is learning how to have self- control and autonomy. When the toddler gains control of his or herself the toddler feels independent. Letting the toddler decide what he or she will wear, eat or toy preference will give them a stronger feeling of self -control.
Language development tis affected when a child is isolated from others which directly affects their ability to communicate in social situations. Language development begins at infancy, by things like cooing, crying and giggling, the sounds they make are initials to the language development, because they learned to put sounds together. When a child needs something from a parent, they communicate their needs by crying and getting their attention. They learn to communicate their feelings. When a baby is isolated they don’t get that attention they need, even if they cry.
The Preoperational Phase is associated with the child of approximately two to seven years. The child’s thought process in this phase is characterized by egocentrism; that is, the child cannot look at something from another’s point of view. However, Piaget’s theory is not without its shortfalls. Some theorists have criticised Piaget for underestimating the cognitive ability of young children (Wood, 2008).
Furthermore, it was interesting that empathy, or a lack of, is socialized through emulation of parental behaviour and can be seen so early in childhood. This was demonstrated by children reacting to others’ distress in the same manner to which their caregiver reacted to the child’s
1.4. Analyse how children’s learning and development can be affected by: Personal factors are a child’s genes which influence development and how the brain works. This influences a child’s personality, potential and health which will later be influenced by their environment • Influences before and at birth: genetics, maternal, diet etc. during pregnancy and birth itself can have problems due to the lack of oxygen (cord around the neck) and injuries during birth.
Human development refers to the progress that human beings make in their lives. Alternatively, childhood development is the process through which a child advances from infancy to independence. This type of development has different domains, namely, physical (changes in the body), cognitive (changes in thinking), social (changes in the way an individual relate to others) and emotional (changes in an individual’s personality or feelings) domains (Woolfolk, 2012). These domains uniquely interact in a way that a child’s progress in one area, leads to achievement in another field. For instance, when a child learns how to walk or talk, he or she is exposed to a new environment that advances their development.