“The propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular individuals [is] a basic component of human nature” (John Bowlby, 1988, 3). What is development? According to Shaffer, D. R & Kipp K. (2010) Developmental Psychology (Eight Edition) “Development refers to the systematic continuities and changes in the individual that occurs between conception … and death.”. Development is a key component of the physical and physiological formation of a human being. What is attachment? Attachment is, according to Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969, “a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space”. What are the stages of development? Development starts as early as the fertilization of the egg of the mother and the sperm of the father, this is called “The Prenatal Stage”. The zygote divides through a process called mitosis where two cells become four, etc.; lasting for around four days. The second period lasts for two weeks, the zygote is now known as an embryo which develops into the fetus over the nine-month period. In this period, the physical aspect of the infant is being developed and studies have shown that due to genes, there is a predetermined set of traits that the child may possess. After birth, the baby is not yet developed completely. Their motor skill e.g. …show more content…
It can affect their though moral, emotional and social development, they can have a lack of impulse control, their cognitive development can be unhinged. We can see this in the case study of Genie, a girl who was severely neglected by her parents, locking her in a confined room and often tied to a potty-chair, giving her little to no human interaction leaving her in total isolation. She was found by a social worker aged 13. This case shows us the results of lack of attachment and how it affected her development, especially in the sector of language, where she could only speak a very limited amount of
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One of the theories that can explain this is Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory. This theory states that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems. There are five environmental systems that are identified within the theory. The microsystem is the setting of an individual, the mesosystem involves relationships and connections between the microsystem and contexts, the exosystem includes links between the social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the immediate context, the macrosystem involves culture, and the chronosystem consists of patterns and transitions during the life course (Santrock
Abuse is another thing that has been linked, to problems in a child 's development. The earlier abuse and neglect occur in a child 's life the more severe the impact. Furthermore, the stage of development, while the abuse occurs will influence the type and severity of the consequences. Additionally, the more chronic and long lasting the abuse and neglect, the more harmful it is. When the abuse and neglect are caused, by parents or another significant figure a child, becomes confused because their supposed source of safety is the source of their harm.(Frederico 343).
Several themes are demonstrated in the course of lifespan development. Although each child develops individually, common themes can be seen throughout the development. The following are explanations of four universal themes of human development, including the continuity-discontinuity issue, nature versus nurture, the active-passive issue, and the development across domains issue, and how my personal experiences relate to the understanding of each theme. Early Development is Related to Later Development but Not Perfectly Shaffer and Kipp (2010) describe a pervasive theme in lifespan development, in which our early development during infancy and childhood correlates to how we later develop as adults, known as the continuity-discontinuity issue.
As they go through this stage young people will begin to solve problems more easily and have an appreciation of other people’s views and opinions. However as they are still inexperienced in life a young person may appear immature at times with regards to their ways of thinking and speech. During the Emotional Development stage, a young person will begin to spend less time with their parents and want to spend more time with their friends socialising instead. A young person may also feel conflicted at times, as they will want the affection from parents, however this is usually short lived as the young person will then also reject it when it is given.
During this stage, the child will develop from being
Insecure attachment affects a child’s brain development which in turn impacts interactions with others, resilience, confidence and the ability to explore their environments. Insecure attachment contributes to “cognitive vulnerability to depression, specifically, dysfunctional attitudes.” (Lee & Hankin, 2009). Some characteristics of an insecurely attached child includes the inability to deal with stress, low self esteem, a lack of self control, and pseudo-independent behaviors. These children often behave as if they know that adults are inconsistently available.
Research of over the course 30 years showed that infants are far more competent, social, and responsive and are able to make sense of their environment. Infants are no longer regarded as passive and do not only respond to stimuli (Fantz, 1963). The theory of attachment that was first proposed by John Bowlby (1970) described it as a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings’. He notion that children as young as infant need to develop a secure attachment with their main caregiver. Bowlby’s attachment theories are both psychopathology and normal socio-emotional development.
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
Developmental psychology is a scientific approach that describes growth, change and coherence throughout life. Developmental psychology looks at how one's thoughts, feelings and behavior change throughout his or her life. An important part of the theories within this discipline focus on development in childhood; because it is the time that elapses throughout the life of the individual when the most change occurs. Developmental psychologists examine broad theoretical domains such as biological, social, emotional, and cognitive processes. Prenatal development refers to the process of development of a baby from a single cell after pregnancy to embryo and then to a fetüs.
Developmental Milestones Developmental Milestones are a set of functional skills which most of the children can perform at a certain age. Every milestone has a certain age limit. Some may achieve it early and some may do it a bit late as every child is unique. Premature babies achieve these milestones slightly late as compared to their healthier counterparts. You might also like: My top 6 learning toys for 0-12 month olds
Introduction: In this assignment I will apply development theory to real life scenarios. Dr. Berger an author and professor at the City University of New York states, “A developmental theory is a systematic statement of general principals that provide a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.” Therefore, I will be analyzing and applying real life scenarios to the life of my son Christopher Ramirez and explain how his development is associated with very specific theories or a theorist. This developmental theory will be applied to all four age ranges which are: the first two years (0-2), the play years (2-6), the school years (7-11), and the adolescence years (11-18).
Development is a gradual and continuous process. The development of children is greatly influenced through interactions with the family, friends and culture. Children learn from seeing how they are treated, overhearing the interactions of the people around them and observing the things we do all throughout the day. Fully understanding how children grown and change over the course of childhood requires us to look into various child development theories such as psychosocial, cognitive, behaviourist and ecological theories, to name a few.
Thus when we talk of development we need to understand the patterns of biological, cognitive and socioemotional changes that a child goes through from birth to lifespan which is why it is important to introduce a child to age appropriate education else a child may not be able to pick up for eg if we introduce a child to writing at an early age he may not be able to do so as he is still developing his fine motor skills. When we talk of biological development it’s the changes in physical growth of the child and is genetically inherited and will also include the brain and motor skill, cognitive will emphasise the child’s ability to think, language development and problem solving skills and the socioemotional development will look at the child’s relationship with other people and changes in ones emotions and personality. There are various stages of development like infancy from birth to about 24 months where the child is completely dependent on the adult where many activities like language development, sensory and motor coordination , social interaction and
Introduction Development refers to the pattern of continuity and change in human capabalities that occurs throughout the course of life (King, 2008). Children development is is a part of human development that refers to a biological, emotional, and psychological changes that take a place in human beings between birth to adult. To develop from the child to adult, there are two main focus which is nature and nurture that must come together. Nature refers to the gene or heredity, meanwhile nurture involve the environment around us.
DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY: REFLECTIVE ESSAY In life of an individual there are several developmental changes or events which occur as continuity of span of life. Some of life developmental stages include infantile, adolescence, maturity, and adulthood. These phases have biological, social, psychological and physiognomic reasons to which an individual completed the course of life. Psychological analysis upon the developmental stages include the focus on characterization, demarcation and the social interaction of individual’s life (Baltes & Schaie, 2013).