Research of over the course 30 years showed that infants are far more competent, social, and responsive and are able to make sense of their environment. Infants are no longer regarded as passive and do not only respond to stimuli (Fantz, 1963). The theory of attachment that was first proposed by John Bowlby (1970) described it as a ‘lasting psychological connectedness between human beings’. He notion that children as young as infant need to develop a secure attachment with their main caregiver. Bowlby’s attachment theories are both psychopathology and normal socio-emotional development.
TOPIC - DEVELOPMENT PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH QUESTION - To what extent do early attachments affect adult interpersonal relationships? INTRODUCTION Attachment can be referred to as a deep and enduring emotional bond connecting one individual to another across the barriers of time and space. It need not be a reciprocal relationship in nature. Renowned psychologist John Bowlby has defined attachment as a “lasting psychological connectedness occurring between human beings’. One person may be attached to another individual without this relationship being mutual.
Psychology Assignment. Whilst the process of attachment in early life may appear straightforward, there is however, a number of theories that can explain how this can vary. The development and importance of attachment in early life is well portrayed in psychological theory and in psychological research. The definition of attachment according to Bowlby (1982) (Psychological Science by Michael Gazzaniga Page 366) is that "attachment is a strong, emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances". In order for a human being to have a successful social life in later years, it is of the utmost importance that emotional bonds act as building blocks for development.
INTRO Attachment theory is the idea that a child needs to form a close relationship with at least one primary caregivers , this theory provided that attachment is necessary to ensure successful social emotional development of an infant. This is a very crucial stage in occurs in the early infant years this factors relationships with the child and the primary child care giver. In this case the parents and the educator can share the primary role. John Bowlby began researching after he graduated, he believed the attached processed involved the cognitive emotional and social features of attachment. Stating four different style of attachment and how they can all have leading factors as well as long term affects.
Cultural Differences in Child Attachment and The Universality of Attachment Theory Although attachment theory has been widely accepted, its universality is controversial. Some research support its validity across cultures, some do not. The main critique about the universality of attachment theory is that it is based especially on research that is conducted in Euro-Western populations. This causes suspicions about whether attachment theory is valid across diverse cultures. In this paper, I will present a literature review of four cross-cultural research to examine the universality of attachment theory.
According to Ainsworth, “attachment refers to an affectional tie that one person forms to another specific individual… attachment is thus discriminating and specific” (Salande & Hawkins, 2016). Without an attachment to an adult, a child has no guidance or direction in life. Therefore, if a child grows up in an unstable family structure, this child is more likely to develop an insecure attachment style in adulthood. Attachment theory confirms the importance of human relationships and their consequences for individual development (Schneider, 1991). As one continues to grow into an adult, it is important to have one to look up to for guidance, no matter what the situation may be.
They helped take care of her and researched on her potential. They analyzed Genie under a multitude of linguistic questions about vocabulary, environment, and the possibility of innate language. Genie was unable to speak full sentences, but had been making some progress since her discovery. There were arguments over who should care for Genie, especially because this was such a rare occasion. Butler, Genie’s teacher was granted temporary custody after exposing her to rubella.
The intimacy component refers to the feelings of a relationship that promote bonding between individuals and creates the desire to promote the welfare and happiness of the loved one. As well as being able to be reliant on the loved one, therefore strengthening the trust, amongst others. This may be applied to the affect and affiliation of interpersonal attraction. When individuals have reached the level of intimacy, it is evident that the propinquity effect has been positive and has led to the repeated exposure effect then leading to physical attractiveness. Thus, leading to romantic attachment, which are the positive feelings and attitudes felt for another
Attachment in early life is a fundamental aspect of child development and the establishment of intimate and reciprocal relationships with caregivers. Shaffer & Kipp (2007) define attachment as ‘a close emotional relationship between two persons, characterized by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity’. Contrary to the original view of infant attachment as a ‘secondary drive’ of the dependency on caregivers for physiological needs, such as hunger; Bowlby (1969, 1973) proposed that all infants are born with an innate bias to form an attachment to a primary attachment figure to whom they can seek comfort, or a ‘secure base’ during stressful circumstances. It is proposed by Ainsworth (1967) that parental sensitivity is crucial to shaping the security and development of the initial infant-parent attachment relationship, however the phenomenon of attachment requires both infants and caregivers to contribute in the formation of the attachment bond. Ultimately, the quality of attachment in early life shapes both the social and emotional
CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study focused on the Attachment theory in which it is stated how attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969). Attachment theory is a theory that’s connected to psychology, studied first by John Bowlby. It explains the relevance of getting attached to something in an individual’s development. It is observed among children relying on their parents for stability, and that there is an existing need for them due to such reliance. The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance.