Farley describes free consent as “an obligation to respect the right of human persons to determine their own actions and their relationships in the sexual sphere” (218). It is considered unethical to condemn a prostitute if they have chosen, by free consent, to partake in prostitution as their profession. This decision, if made by the prostitute, can be used to argue that prostitution is ethical according to Farley’s ethical framework. In the case of sexual violence and sex trafficking, it can be argued that there is a lack of free consent, making prostitution unethical. When sexual violence comes into play, it is a violation of Farley’s claim that free consent is body integrity.
Discrimination is a big struggle managers in the human resource department face at the workplace, especially since the consequences are high, and the company’s reputation is at stake. Discrimination usually occurs during hiring, firing, training, job assigning, demoting, and promoting. Discrimination in the workplace is against the law and occurs when an employer judges an employee due to human factors such as: age, race, disability, compensation, genetic information, harassment, origin, pregnancy, religion, retaliation, or physical appearance. Disability discrimination is the act of harassing an employee due to his or her disability, or when job applicants are requested to answer questions about medical conditions or take medical exams. It
Bullying at workplace is about repeated activities and practises that are directed against one or more workers that are unwanted by the victim; that may be carried out deliberately or unconsciously. This unethically behaviour clearly may cause humiliation, offence, and distress; and may interfere with work performance or cause an unpleasant working condition (Einarsen and Raknes, 1997). According to Leymann (1996) and Olweus (1987), workplace bullying can be defines as negative behaviour from someone to others that constantly occur. The psychological nature is the main exposure to negative and aggressive behaviour that related with concept of bullying at workplace. British journalist Andrea Adams devised the phrase “workplace bullying” to define a group of harassing behaviour that employees may be exposed to at any period of their vocation, irrespective of their association in a protected class based on gender, ethnicity, age, etc.
Unethical behavior occurs within many different organizations and at many different levels. According to Kreitner & Kinicki (2013), organizations that foster a pressure-cooker atmosphere for results, unwittingly allows managers to set the stage for unethical shortcuts by employees who seek to please the boss and protect their jobs. Within the military, this is evident by the high rewards for accomplishing goals and then the punishment for not obtaining them. When an ethical lapse occurs it impacts the organizational culture. The organizational culture is a system of shared assumptions, values and beliefs that governs how people behave in organizations.
A lower standard of evidence, such as the ones presented in Hopkin’s case, can be used as valid proof. This is a step forward to combat discrimination in the workplace because this recognizes that implicit forms of biases, such as stereotyping, have huge impacts in how people are treated in the workplace. Unaddressed biases can affect many workplace decisions, from promotions to daily interactions with coworkers. Not only did this case address this issue, it also established that firms are responsible for making sure that its employees are aware of biases and stereotypes and for proactively looking into incidents where stereotypes might have influenced a workplace
This non-productive behavior includes gossip, personal phone calls, cyber loafing, harassment, stealing, abusing organizational property or even limiting productivity. This observable variance in behavior has been identified as non-compliant behavior (Puffer, 1987), counter-productive work behavior (Spector et al., 2006) and workplace deviance (Robinson & Bennett, 1995) etc. A workplace deviance has been defined as “voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and in doing so threatens the well-being of an organization, and or its members” (Robinson & Bennett, 1995). It is directly proportional to the cost,
The mere fact that sexuality is integral to personhood does not render it market-inalienable. Instead of the ‘integral part of personhood’ proposition, this essay argues against commodifying sexuality on the basis that it causes gross impairment to prostitutes’ subjectivity. The impairment is so gross that it makes prostitutes subordinate to the clients, degrading their personhood. Such impairment is then unjustifiable. IV.
Sex work is not regulated and not treated the way it should be. Prostitution should be legalized. Although people believe that making prostitution illegal would minimize the possibility of exploitation, it actually forces the business ‘underground’ which causes more problems and doesn’t stop it from happening.
Incivility in the workplace also has negative outcomes related to financial costs related to absenteeism, turnover, lost productivity, and legal actions (Laschinger et al., 2014). Incivility is low caliber deviant behavior intended to derail the target (Laschinger et al., 2014). Incivility in the workplace can escalate to violence and has damaging effects on nurses, patients, and the organization (Laschinger et al., 2014). Having a preventative approach to incivility rather than a reactionary approach can be empowering to the workplace and decreases stressful environments which in turn decreases incivility (Laschinger et al., 2014). Nursing leadership is crucial in putting forth limits and determining the work environment to prevent incivility in the workplace (Laschinger et al., 2014).
Other important agents are social norms and organizational culture. Bullying and workplace harassment adversely affects the individual victim, the employer organization and at large, the economy. The existence of unsafe work environment characterized by bullying and harassment undermines the business growth and profitability of organizations and also leads to a damaging impact on the organization’s corporate image. Employer organization consequently has to pay in terms of litigation, increased staff turnover and loss of morale, absenteeism, potential workers’ compensation claims etc. Furthermore, workplace harassment results in loss of time and productivity due to negative circumstances keeping employees preoccupied, loss of skill and experience due to employees leaving the organization and harm to company’s market