Diabetes is a disease that 29.1 million people have to live with; so what is it? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when a person’s pancreas stops producing insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose. Insulin is responsible for delivering the glucose from the bloodstream into muscles, fat, liver, and most cells to produce fuel for the body. Type one Diabetes develops when the cells that create insulin, the pancreatic beta cells, are destroyed by the body’s immune system.
Glucose taken in by fat cells contributes to the amount of fat in these cells. Insulin need to be released within a few minutes, but it takes 30-60 minutes for the insulin gene to be switched on - beta cells make insulin in advance (in vesicles waiting for an increase to occur). When extra glucose is detected in the beta cell, the vesicle fuses to the plasma membrane and releases the insulin in to the blood stream. Once it has travelled through the blood stream and found its specific receptor, it binds to the receptor and becomes activated. The binding of the insulin hormone and its receptor causes the cell to change its intracellular shape and proportion, allowing for the hormone on the outside to control the cell inside.
Describe in detail how these hormones regulate blood glucose levels. After eating a meal, the level of glucose in the body increases and it promotes to secrete insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas. Then insulin triggers the uptake of glucose from the blood to the cells by decreasing the level of blood glucose. Or insulin can stimulate the formation of glycogen from the glucose which also reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood (Reece et al., 910). If the concentration of glucose in the blood is low / below the normal range, it leads to the secretion of glycogen from the alpha cells.
Diabetes mellitus a condition where the body has trouble making and/or using the insulin it needs to regulate its blood sugar levels. We get glucose from food, and when our blood glucose levels get high, insulin is released to activate glucose uptake by various cells. If it isn’t able to do its job properly, glucose will build up in the blood and can lead to hyperglycemia and many complications. Diabetes mellitus is more common than diabetes insipidus, and has 3 types: type 1, type 2, and gestational. Treatments can include lifestyle changes (exercise, diet) as well as insulin
Foot problems caused by diabetes arise from what is called neuropathy. If unchecked for long periods of time, high blood sugar levels among diabetics take their toll on their central and other parts of the nervous systems. The most adversely affected among them are the nerves in the diabetics' feet. Nerves in the foot area are farthest from the patient's brain and are therefore most susceptible to damage. Diabetics can sometimes injure parts of their feet and feel no pain from it.
Most of the people get a same result that they are in the danger of diabetes. Diabetes is increasing the amount of blood sugar in your body. There are two types of diabetes. They are insulin dependent (juvenile) diabetes and non-insulin dependent (adult onset) diabetes. Insulin is the hormone made by a gland in your body called pancreas.
LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 DIABETES MELLITUS Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are common diseases that co-exist at a greater frequency than chance alone would predict. Hypertension in the diabetic patient markedly increases the risk of cardiac disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke etc. Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar level (WHO,2014). In a healthy individual, the hormone called insulin which is produced by the ß-cells of the islets of langerhans is responsible for the regulating the sugar balance in the body but in diabetic patients, this regulatory mechanism is defective either due to defective insulin production or the body not responding to the insulin produced by the body(ADA,2014). In Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, where is defective production of insulin and this type of DM is also called Type 1 DM.
Pharmaceutical care is the responsible provision of drug therapy, for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve patients’ quality of life. Use of medications is central to modern health care, and nearly all patients visiting a hospital will receive one or more medicines during their hospital stay or upon discharge. The goal of drug therapy is the achievement of defined therapeutic outcomes that improve a patient’s quality of life while minimizing patient risk.1. Though in majority of cases medication use results in the desired outcome,they are not without risk and problems , unexpected outcomes may arise.2 Healthcare errors are the result of non-intentional actions caused by some problem or failure while caring for the
However, one must be wary of the side-effects of these diet pills. As such, one must faithfully follow the instructions provided for in the packaging. It is also prudent to consult the physician anyway before trying out these drugs and also to find out which type would be best for the