Diabetes Mellitus Case Studies

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I. INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus is a global disease affecting almost all populations of the world over the past twenty years, especially in the most developed countries. Due to its rising incidence, most populations already have a general idea regarding diabetes, its common symptoms, its treatments and its possible causes. Obesity, increasing age, an unhealthy diet and genetics are commonly blamed to be the causes of diabetes. Despite all the knowledge already gained about this disease, people are still a long way off from fully understanding diabetes and its causes (Guariguata, Nolan, Beagley, Linnenkamp and Jacqmain, 2013).
The term diabetes mellitus, also known as diabetes, is a chronic disease associated with abnormally high levels of
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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES According to Carlson (2015), diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how the body uses blood sugar, also known as glucose. Glucose is important to the health because it is the source of energy for the cells that make up the humans' muscles and tissues. It is also the brains' main source of fuel. However, if a person has diabetes, it means that there is too much glucose in the blood, which can lead to serious health problems.
Goel (2007) shared an interesting point of view regarding the causes of diabetes. The author listed the probable causes of diabetes including but not limited to obesity, diet, pancreatic problems, adrenaline factors, hypothyroidism, liver problems, iatrogenic factors, insulin antagonists, growth hormones, adrenocortical hormones, and hyperglycemia in pregnancy.
Also, NIDDK (2014) added more causes of type 1 diabetes that include genetic susceptibility, autoimmune destruction of beta cells, and environmental factors. While the causes of type 2 diabetes were genetic susceptibility, obesity and physical inactivity, insulin resistance, abnormal glucose production by the liver, history of gestational diabetes, and beta cell dysfunction. Likewise, gestational diabetes is also caused by insulin resistance, beta cell dysfunction and a family history. Additionally, other types of diabetes are caused by diseases and injuries that damage the pancreas like certain chemical toxins, medications, infections and other

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