To gain an understanding of a client’s thought patterns cohesively, one can use narrative therapy. Narrative therapy is known as re-authoring or re-storying of conversations (Morgan, 2000). It is a method that centres on people as experts of their own lives. A narrative approach thus views problems as separate from people. It is assumed that the person has many beliefs, values, commitments, skills, abilities and competencies which will help them to change their relationship with the problems that are influencing their lives.
Wesche (1983 ) connects that the type of score report to the nature of of the decision to be made with the test washback. "If the purpose of the test is diagnostic or to evaluate progress in a language training program , detailed scoring grades might be in order". (p.47).Since the emergence of the effect of washback on learning and teaching process, many researchers have tried to study negative or positive aspects of backwash on different teaching methods. Spolsky (1990) it is not an exaggeration to say that the roll of textbooks , authors , publishers , teachers , teaching methodology and scoring and grading , is crucial in the washback process.Much more research is needed in this area. Many researchers need to employ additional ways of looking at the influence of tests on teachers ' methods.The publication of the seminal paper by Alderson and Wall (1993) with the title "Dose washback exist ?"
Both of these would help students to narrate their ideas or experiences narrowly. To be specific, the articles define that by using picture series and acquiring the cognitive writing process, the students were not more than just highly developed in narrative writing skills, but they would expertise to convey the logical sequence and ideas properly with less grammar and spelling errors by using planned instruction and picture sequence. However, if students did not provide at either cognitive writing process or picture series, consequently students would write the narrative text with many grammar and fluency errors in roughly. Moreover, others researchers tend to correlate between writing ability with age, gender and soon. But what we actually seen here is, there is no correlation with the students’ grades, ages, and the readers’ background knowledge towards fluency, mechanical errors, content, and text length and the word choice in narrative writing development.
The ability to speak fluently presupposes not only knowledge of language features, but also the ability to process information and language ‘on the spot. Several issues arise for any teacher trying to incorporate principles of process writing into his or her professional practice. First, teachers need to provide time for writing in the supported learning environment of the classroom. Many students will benefit from structured tasks, which teach them strategies for planning, drafting, and revision. Many teachers would argue that setting aside the time needed for feedback, and for the revision of several drafts, is unrealistic, particularly within the constraints of school systems; and particularly where classes are large.
Millions of people have successfully learnt foreign languages to a high degree of proficiency. Grammar translation classes are usually conducted in the students ’ native-language .Grammar rules are learnt deductively students learn grammar rules by rote and then practice the rules by doing grammar drills and translating sentences to and from the target language attention is given to the form of the sentence being translated than to their content. The main source of classroom material is the textbook. The result was student always fail often speaking an writing. It is true that the grammar translation method is widely practiced and is the standard way in teaching languages in schools.
The Importance of Teacher feedback in Students’ Writing Improvement Writing is an important skill contributing to the student’s language learning. However, learning how to write is not easy because writing is considered the most difficult skill to acquire. According to Zacharia (2005), it requires having a certain amount of L2 background knowledge about rhetorical organization, appropriate language use or specific lexicon with which they want to communicate their ideas. Therefore, the teachers have to make an effort to help students enhance their writing skill and increase their motivation to accomplish the writing task. One of the most useful techniques to help student develop writing skill is giving feedback.
Textbooks play a central role in language teaching and provide a valuable source for both teachers and learners. In relation with textbook Davison (1975) suggests that after the teacher the textbook is the most significant component in the foreign language classrooms. Few teachers enter class without a textbook which provides content and teaching/learning activities that form much of what happens in the classroom. Some students, in Mukundan and Ahour’s (2010, p. 336) words, rely deeply on the textbook as “an essential element of their learning material without which they do not consider the learning situation to be serious”. According to Tomlinson (2012), textbooks prepare learners for examinations, help teachers by reducing their preparation time, help administrators to allocate lessons to teachers, normalize teaching, and provide teaching that would be valuable to any learner anywhere at a specified language level.
Reading and listening are considered receptive skills whereas speaking and writing are known as productive skills. (Javed, Juan& Nazli:2013,p.130) Writing is one of the basic EFL skills. Banat(2007) pointed out that this skill is invaluable for helping students communicate and understand how the parts of language go together, adding that writing is one of the four major language skills that need to be mastered by language learners. Abu Rass(2001) stressed that writing is a difficult skill for native and nonnative speakers alike, for writers should balance multiple issues such as content, organization, purpose, audience, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Writing is especially difficult for nonnative speakers because they are expected to create written products that demonstrate mastery of all the aforementioned issues in a new language.
In the views of Langan (1987) and Gunning (1998) writing is difficult as they stated that writing is more complex and abstract than talking. Therefore, it is evidently true that writing becomes a problematic area for the students who write in second language (L2). Besides students, teachers too face difficulties in teaching this skill as students find it complicated to acquire and deal with confusion when they practice academic writing. Teacher’s plays an eminent role in language classes as it is his/her duty to keep students engage in different activities which not only polish their listening, speaking and reading skills but writing as well. It can be said that a good speaker may not always be a good writer as writing requires much more than speaking.
Their devotion to showing and writing alongside the information and thoughts I have gotten notification from them has demonstrated to me that writing could be fun, significant and fascinating. I have not read a lot of writings but rather might want to that is whether they are half as intriguing as the topics we have talked about in class room exchanges. Something else that has affected me to enhance my writing skills is simply perusing a percentage of the great and awful case. Every writer has their qualities and weaknesses. Typically my qualities are exceeded by my weaknesses.