Diarrhea Literature Review

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2.0 LITERATIRE REVIEW This chapter expounds on the different kinds of literature which has been used in this study. It shows how the views expressed by other researchers impact on the present study. The literature review takes account of a wide range of literature from printed to non-print media. 2.1 Introduction Causal factors that lead to the increases in diarrhea cases among the under-fives in Kikuyu Township can be divided into three broad groups, namely; a) Environmental factors b) Nutritional factors c) Individual factors 2.2 Environmental factors that cause diarrhea Environmental factors that cause increase in diarrhea cases among the under-fives are sanitation, access to safe water and hygiene infrastructure. An estimated 88 per…show more content…
In developing countries 1.1 billion people still defecate in the open, and only 17% of people who use toilets clean their hands with soap and water (WHO technical staff, 2011). Diarrhea mostly results from the ingestion of pathogens from faeces that have not been disposed of properly, or from the lack of hygiene practises. Interventions which are primary barriers of diarrhea include the disposal of stools in such a way that they are isolated from all future human contact by the use of latrines, sewers, burying and the removal of traces of faecal material from hands after contact with…show more content…
Children who are breastfed and started food and fluids may ingest pathogens during the weaning feeding period that would have not been present in breast milk, thereby increasing the risk of acute diarrhea. Factors that may lead to diarrhea during the weaning period include, using foods of low energy and nutrient concentration, selecting single foods of low nutritional value, weaning abruptly, using contaminated foods, feeding at infrequent intervals, the preparation of food several hours before consumption combined with storage at ambient temperatures, and inadequately cooling and reheating foods (Mediratta et al,

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