SEM, EDAX analysis revealed no obvious presence of Zr in the matrix of Steel 2 (Fig. 6c) and Ti in the matrix of Steel 3 (Fig.8c). The bright particles in Steel 2 and dark particles in Steel 3 were confirmed to be rich in Zr and Ti respectively (Figs 6b and 8b). EPMA line scan of bright particles in Steel 2 and dark particles in Steel 3 also indicates that, they are rich in Zr and Ti respectively (Figs 7 and 9). The chemical analysis of Steel 2 and 3 shows presence of 0.37Zr and 0.09B in Steel 2 and 0.34Ti and 0.14B in Steel 2 (Table 2) respectively.
Chromic acid is added continuously until a slight brownish colour solution persists, this is to make sure that complete oxidation of borneol in the experiment. Light petroleum was used to dissolve and extract the product from the aqueous layer twice, 15 mL each. Sodium carbonate and saturated solution were used to wash product and separate both aqueous and organic layer in the separating funnel. This is to increase the accuracy when flowing out the aqueous layer. The extracted organic layer was steam bathed to vaporize light petroleum which has low boiling point at 30-40˚C.
Materials All the chemicals used for synthesis purposes were of AR grade, purchased from Sigma Aldrich chemicals, and for spectral analysis spectral grade solvents were used. Double distilled water was used for preparing solutions. The test strains, Escherichia coli (E. coli) gram-negative, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were purchased from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. Yeast extract, tryptophan and bacterial-grade agar–agar were purchased from Hi-media Laboratories, Mumbai, India. Synthesis of 2-[(4-methoxy-phenyl)iminomethyl]-4-nitrophenol (SB) The Schiff-base, 2-[(4-methoxy-phenyl)iminomethyl]-4-nitrophenol, (C14H12N2O4) was synthesized by using p-Anisidine in methanol
SEM-EDS Due to their non-destructible nature, no sample preparation was allowed on these samples. Their structure and composition were analyzed using a JEOL 5410 LV SEM coupled with an Oxford Instruments INCA Penta FETx3 analytical system at the Institute of Product Quality and Standardization of Maejo University (Thailand). The system was operated at a high voltage of 15 kV, an elapsed lifetime of 60 seconds and a magnification of 500X. The elemental compositions were conventionally determined in weight percent. B. PIXE PIXE that was used to analyze based on a 2-MeV proton beam produced by a 1.7 MV tandem Tandetron accelerator at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility of Chiang Mai University (Thailand).
Oxo synthesis and aldol condensation are chemical synthesis route, both of which use petroleum as the raw materials, and thus need a large investment and have strict technical equipment requirements. The biological fermentation of butanol from renewable resources (biomass) is generally carried out by C. acetobutylicum under control anaerobic conditions, with butanol, acetone, and ethanol as the main products at a ratio of approximately 6:3:1, and this process is referred as ABE
Experiment 5: Effect of concentration on Zn and Cu metals were cleaned with emery paper, the solution of the 1M CuSO4 was changed with 0.001M CuSO4, 0.01M CuSO4 and 0.1M CuSO4 respectively, piece of metals were attached to the wire and observed data was recorded. Results Observed records from Cu2+ and Zn reactions Solution Color turned from blue to brown Tube The temperature changed from cold to warm Solid Solid precipitation is
The first step was to disperse 4 g of block P123 (EO20PO70EO20) in 40 ml of distilled water and 120ml of 2 M aqueous HCl was added with stirring at 350 C for about 3 h. To this solution, 4 g of TEOS was added and continuously stirred at 400 C for 24h. Then the resulting gel was
Ozone likely reacts with the aromatic rings in lignin to form muconic acid derivatives and other compounds containing carboxylic acid groups. Ozone appears to be more efficient than chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide and dimethyldioxirane in inducing the formation of carboxylic acid and eliminating condensed phenolic structures in solvent extracted residual kraft lignin. The most critical bleaching stage of TCF bleaching process of dissolving pulps is the ozone treatment which is necessary for removal of residual lignin. As ozone delignification is accompanied by serious cellulose damage, the ozone charge in the bleaching stage should be as low as possible. (Kordsachia O., S. Roßkopf, R. Patt.
Composite washed with aquades. Dried in the oven at the temperature 50⁰C for 24 hours. Composites are characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and SEM 2.2. analysis of Silica In Composite By Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy Each as much as 0.1 gram of the mixed aqueous solution of HCl added composite 2.5 M and 0.5 M HF with a total volume of 10 ml for through a process of dissolution for 1 week. The total concentration of Si contained in the solution to be analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on long wave 213.86 nm. The making of the Si standard solution done by dissolving 0.1 grams of The metal in solution 20 ml HCl 37% and added aquades to the volume of 100 ml of The solution thus obtained 1000 ppm.
91.5 lb/72 (molar mass of FeO)) ∴Selectivity of Fe=(10.714 moles Fe)/(1.271 moles FeO)=8.43 (mole Fe)⁄(mole FeO) Example 3.6: Chemical Equation and Stoichiometry Question A common method used in manufacturing sodium hypochlorite bleach is by the reaction: Cl_2+2NaOH→NaCl+NaOCl+H_2 O Chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, after which the desired product is separated from the sodium chloride (a by-product of the reaction). An aqueous solution of NaOH containing 520.45 kg of pure NaOH is reacted with 386.82 kg of gaseous chlorine to give 280.91 kg of NaOCl. (a) What was the limiting reactant? (b) What was the percentage excess of the excess reactant used? (c) What is the degree of completion of the reaction, expressed as the moles of NaOCl formed to the moles NaOCl that would have formed if the reaction had gone to completion?