1. Context From Ancient Greece to modern times, individual differences in behaviour have been commonly understood as linked to temperament or personality. Some psychologists, starting with Freud, believed that such differences could be the result of hidden unconscious factors (psychodynamic approach). The promoters of behaviourism, such as Skinner, believed that personality aspects may be the result of conditioning by external factors. Some (for instance, Kelly) focused on cognition, others (such as Mischel) on social factors, while others (Maslow, Rogers) put an emphasis on individuals’ goals in the realization of their potential (humanistic approach).
There are different models to mental health offering a different explanations, approaches and interventions. The Diseased/Medical/Biological model has the belief that mental abnormalities are caused by biochemical, physiological or genetic causes, and therefore, treatment is through medical procedures such as drug therapy, ECT or brain surgery. Genetics studiessuggest that mental health problems are inherited from parents and there is evidence to support this. Neuroimaging states that structural changes in the brain can cause mental illness. In various mental illnesses, volumetric changes, reduction in cortical volume and ventricular atrophy can be seen in the brain and this may well contribute to the cause of the problem.
By doing so, the researcher is potentially putting the participant’s mental health at risk in order to record results. When it comes to psychodynamics, issues could be raised regarding the confidentiality of the information collected. Consent was also another issue when it came to
Moreover, behavior is not only a result of the biological systems alone, but it is also affected by the kind of environment it is being caused in and how the cognition interacts with the biological systems and affect physiology. They have a bidirectional relationship where biology can affect cognition and cognition can affect biology. We have often noticed the various ups and down in our mood, memory, sexual arousal and mental illness. These behaviours would not have been explained without biology, from the physical point of view, the neurotransmitters. They send electrochemical messages to the brain for people to respond to stimuli, either from the environment or from internal changes in the body.
Even though many divergent psychodynamic theories exist, they all stress unconscious motivations and desires, in addition to the importance of childhood experiences in shaping their personalities. Freud also proposed there were ways that we dealt with those theories called defense mechanisms. He believed we must learn to deal with the anxiety that comes from sources in the external world and conflict within one’s own mind. In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, Freud established a method that he called psychoanalysis and he used it to treat mental disorders. He shaped his theory of psychoanalysis by observing his patients.
One major line of research offers explanations to the development of psychopathy. This line focuses on the biological effect it has on a person that could lead in becoming a psychopath. Past research studies have suggested that when an individual with psychopathic tendency imagine others in pain, brain areas necessary for feeling empathy and concern for others fail to become active and be connected to other important regions involved in affective processing and decision-making. One of the theories that offer an explanation to the biological effect that contributes to the development of psychopathy is that psychopaths lack the feeling of empathy unlike a normal person. The one research study that has been conducted to prove this theory was
Psychological case formulation is a hypothesis about the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating and protective factors (4Ps) that contribute to the understanding of an individual’s problems (Eells, 2007). Formulations are rooted in theory and research (Kuyken, Fothergill, Musa, & Chadwick, 2005), and aid in identifying which direction treatment should head towards, as well as potential barriers that might be encountered (Levenson & Strupp, 2007). These are dynamic can be revised in the event that new information emerges during treatment (Eells, 2007). On the other hand, the DSM is said to have two main purposes of improving communication and guiding the planning of treatment (Mullins-Sweatt & Widiger, 2009). This essay will assess the ability
History of the social sciences have made record of the different personalities and attributes that make up an individual. Having data can be of later reference to learn more about people and the way they interact with their environment. Studies in personality have helped develop testing and therefore able to have evidence about future outcomes. As a social scientist, Erich Fromm looked into the way people feel about their position in the world. He accepted that the world can be a corrupt and immoral place to live in.
Labelling affects individuals to really understand the mental disorder and their consequences. As a result of labelling of mental disorders, people are seen as “being” mentally ill instead of “having” a mental illness (Pasman, 2011). Labelling of mental illness has both positive and negative implications on people who are suffering from a mental disorder. In this essay, the psychological implications for individuals who are receiving a diagnostic label is explained by considering people who are suffering from
Also, Sebba et al. claimed that the medical model reflected the shortfalls individual has because of different syndromes. The psychological model was affected by the tests of intelligence and psychometrics, Piaget’s of psychological development and Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning. While the ecological model emphasized on the individual environment. All these models and other learning and teaching thoughts have influenced our understanding of individuals difficulties in