BIO-HYDROGEN Hydrogen gas produced from the photosynthetic organisms and from wastes by microbial fermentation is called Bio-Hydrogen. Green plants, algae and cyanobacteria are capable of producing hydrogen during light reactions of photosynthesis. A. Photoproduction of Hydrogen In photosynthetic microbes, hydrogen production takes place in the electron transport chain. Ferridoxin accepts electrons from the electron transport system and gives to the hydrogenase enzyme, green algae, Ascophyllum nodosum which reduces H+ ions into H2. This type of H2 production occurs in Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and red algae such as Ceramium rubrum, Chondrus crispus, Porphyra, Corallina etc.
Nitrogen is a major component of the atmosphere, but an essential nutrient in short supply to living organisms and is often the most limiting nutrient for plant growth but can also be found in organic matter in soil and the oceans. It is used to make organic molecules such as amino acids (and thus proteins and nucleic acids) for living organisms. Animals require nitrogen for metabolism, growth, and reproduction and get it by consuming nitrogen-containing molecules in organic matter of both living and dead sources. (Pidwirny 2008) The nitrogen cycle can be summarized as follows; Nitrogen in the air (70%) gets converted into a useful form by nitrogen-fixing (conversion of nitrogen into nitrates) bacteria in the soil. This is assimilated by plants and animals.
Institute of Biology, College of Science University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 Philippines “Effect of NOD gene integration on the nitrogen fixation activity of Klebsiella spp.“ Maevel M. Romero MS Microbiology Proponent Submitted to: Gil M. Penuliar Ph.D. Abstract Nitrogen is one of the two elements that can easily limit the biologically mediated carbon assimilation of photoautotrophs. This makes nitrogen fixation important and needing a continuous supply of fixed nitrogen available. Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to its usable form is mediated by prokaryotes, such as bacteria and archaea, collectively called as associative nitrogen fixers or diazotrophs. Nodule formation are exhibited by symbiotic nitrogen fixers which is not present to free-living diazotrophs. A study showed that but preformed nodules made this free –living bacteria more colonizing leading to an increased plant yield.
These fertilizers are able to control the global food production and make sure that the majority of people have access to food. Without ammonia based fertilizers there would be worldwide food shortages that would affect a large part of the world’s population (The Fuse School; 2013). Using ammonia based fertilizer has improved the food industry 's production rates drastically. Previously the largest source for fertilizer was from seabird feces deposits (The Fuse School; 2013). This was highly inefficient seeing as these deposits had limited supplies of the
Haber process Name University Haber Process It had been known in the 20th century that, ecosystem or crop on the earth is heavily dependent on fixed nitrogen. So, if any, chemical method is to be found for nitrogen fixation, it would be ultimate finding for human beings to use nitrogen as a nutritive element (Bozso et al., 1977). The revolutionary chemical formulation is, however, in 1909 is done by German chemist, Fritz Haber, who fixed atmospheric nitrogen in a laboratory after much hard work. But, after 4 years of the invention of this chemical formula, in 1914, Carl Bosch had effectively industrialized Haber process for industrial applications. Moreover, apart from food production (as a fertilizer, Nh3), it can also
The bacteria consumes all of the residual oxygen. Once these underwater plants have died, they leave the fish and other aquatic life without shelter, food and oxygen. The fish and other aquatic life start to die, due to the lack of both oxygen and sunlight. Another concern of the use of fertilizers with nitrates are groundwater contamination. Nitrates are water-soluble and can remain
This group of proteobacteria are capable of photosynthesis, using light to produce energy. Although purple bacteria are capable of photosynthesising, they are quite different to photosynthesising plants as they are anoxygenic meaning they consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen. There are two types of these bacteria- Chromatiaceae who produce sulphur particles inside their cells and Ectothiorhodospiraceae who produce sulphur outside their cells. These bacteria are found typically in places with little oxygen e.g. stagnant water or hot sulphuric springs.
Use of leguminous plants that have nodules in its roots that contain a bacteria Rhizobium that helps fixing atmospheric nitrogen in its root nodules and thus enriching the soil with nitrogen. Use of animal manures and putting biodegradable on the soil to make it more fertile. And Alternate Farming is also a very good way of reducing the use of fertilisers.) 4. Advantage and Disadvantage of Fertilisers and Solutions: (Fertilisers: Advantage- It can be made much faster unlike natural fertilisers.
This artificial nutrient enrichment may be occurred as a result of human activities or natural processes. The main nutrients that will trigger the growth of photosynthetic plants are nitrate, phosphorus and potassium which are normally found in fertilizers. These nutrients will be easily converted into ammonium, which is a major compound that causes eutrophication. Nitrate is the nutrient which triggers eutrophication in coastal water. In contrast, phosphorus is the limiting nutrient which can triggers eutrophication in freshwater.
By combination both of this method, it can say that aquaponic is the sustainable agriculture, because it reuse the non-renewable resources. During fish respiration, the oxygen and carbon dioxide has exchanged in a cycle, while the waste product from fish has highly nitrogen or ammonia content. Highly concentration of ammonia within the fish habitat will slow the growth rate of fish and it also can damage the tissue of fish or in other words, the fish will die if there is no management on water quality (Masser, Rakocy and Losordo, 1999). So, water from the fish tank is pump into the plant beds and this water contain highly nitrogen levels. Beneficial bacteria that present in a plant bed has help the process of water cleaning.