Dictionary Standardization

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The process of dictionary codification to reach English standardization
Introduction:
English language passed many stages until it reached its current standard structure. In this essay, I am going to discuss the way that codified English language in dictionaries; in addition to stating the reasons behind recommending dictionaries. The essay will shed the light on the history of English language in the past until its standardization. As well known, in the past there was no English language in the world, but only Celtic languages were spoken with many dialects since Anglo- Saxons arrived in Britain. Therefore English was one of many dialects that is spoken by Western coast of Europe. Before English appear as a standard language, it was
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However the writing contained variability structure that is randomly reflected the different speech community especially in the pronunciation. By the beginning of seventeenth century, the first monolingual dictionary was emerged by Robert Cawdrey in order to simplify the hard words that are derived from other languages especially Latin and French. Although many dictionaries appeared to serve simplifying the difficult words, but the real standard dictionary didn’t appear until 1755 when Samuel Johnson published “Dictionary of the English Language”, which is the basic dictionary for English codification that serve for educational purposes. Later on, the nineteenth century witnessed more demand for pedagogical dictionaries to get the 'correct English '. Therefore, we can notice how the implementation of standard English passed through many stages for codification and prescriptivism that ranged from fourteenth century till nineteenth. Of course, there were many factors and reasons for such processing in English to be a standard language. (Seargeant & Swann, 2012, 78-80-92) Some reasons behind dictionaries ' commissioning are the decline of Latin and French during the fourteen century. Besides that English became the medium of education and science, therefore…show more content…
The standardization movement was started in 1755 by Johnson, who can be called the founder of English dictionary. Moreover, Hitchings followed Johnson 's steps by documenting the praise and criticism of Johnson 's dictionary. According to Hitching the dictionary was 'an extraordinary work ', however he added readable thoroughly researched study that increased the demand for the dictionary by all libraries. (Hitchings, 2005) Behind the extraordinary dictionary was a set of criteria for Johnson 's dictionary. For example, the division of the words and sorting them according to their different senses for the same word by changing the preposition such as 'put of ', 'put on ', 'put up ', and 'set off ', 'set down ', in addition to many other meanings for the same spelling words as Fritze (1989) mentioned, such as 'bank ' the side of land next to the water and 'bank ' the place where people deposit or borrow money. Johnson also defined the words in the dictionary by supplying the different grammatical categories such as the tense, transitive or intransitive, and multi meanings by combining the words with proposition. Johnson depended on good writers as sources to define the words with illustrated examples from their novels, poems, and drama, such as Shakespeare and Milton. As mentioned in DVD 1, Johnson accustomed to read famous books in many fields such as medicine, astronomy, and science books such as 'The Gravity ' for Isaac Newton. The different sources increased
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