Johnson's Dictionary Codification

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The process of dictionary codification to reach English standardization
English language passed many stages until it reached its current standard structure. In this essay, I am going to discuss the way that codified English language in dictionaries; in addition to stating the reasons behind recommending dictionaries. The essay will shed the light on the history of English language in the past until its standardization. As well known, in the past there was no English language in the world, but only Celtic languages were spoken with many dialects since Anglo- Saxons arrived in Britain. Therefore English was one of many dialects that is spoken by Western coast of Europe. Before English appear as a standard language, it was
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Moreover, Hitchings followed Johnson 's steps by documenting the praise and criticism of Johnson 's dictionary. According to Hitching the dictionary was 'an extraordinary work ', however he added readable thoroughly researched study that increased the demand for the dictionary by all libraries. (Hitchings, 2005) Behind the extraordinary dictionary was a set of criteria for Johnson 's dictionary. For example, the division of the words and sorting them according to their different senses for the same word by changing the preposition such as 'put of ', 'put on ', 'put up ', and 'set off ', 'set down ', in addition to many other meanings for the same spelling words as Fritze (1989) mentioned, such as 'bank ' the side of land next to the water and 'bank ' the place where people deposit or borrow money. Johnson also defined the words in the dictionary by supplying the different grammatical categories such as the tense, transitive or intransitive, and multi meanings by combining the words with proposition. Johnson depended on good writers as sources to define the words with illustrated examples from their novels, poems, and drama, such as Shakespeare and Milton. As mentioned in DVD 1, Johnson accustomed to read famous books in many fields such as medicine, astronomy, and science books such as 'The Gravity ' for Isaac Newton. The different sources increased his knowledge in many meanings, therefore Johnson tried to explain the words with illustrative example and add the initial letter of each word in the margin in the first stage, then the written version will be checked by the amanuensis, who will repeat the procedures of the checking and then copying the words with their definitions. Furthermore the dictionaries were revised and supplied the words with examples from the word context. Nowadays, the dictionaries contain unlimited information in
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