Divisions of the Telencephalon The brain is divided into three parts, namely the forebrain, midbrain and the hindbrain. Telencephalon is the anterior part of the forebrain and contains the left and the right cerebral hemispheres(Freberg, 2009). The main divisions of the telencephalon are the cerebral cortex, which is made up of gray matter, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the olfactory bulb and the basal ganglia. Primary functions of each division Each division of the telencephalon has a number of functions as listed below. Cerebral Cortex This is the outer covering of the cerebral hemispheres that has a wrinkled appearance which provides enough surface area for cortical cells(Freberg, 2009).
The other part is Mesencephalon, which also has two divisions like the metencephalon. These parts are “tectum” and “tegmentum”. Tectum is responsible of visual and auditory function. The tegmentum, by the way, plays the role in mediating the pain-reducing effects of opiate drugs and regulating the sensorimotor
Mental foramen is one of the most important and studied foramen’s of the mandible. The mandibular foramen is an opening seen on the medial ( internal ) aspect of the mandible which leads into a funnel like mandibular canal,that opens at the mental foramen on the anterolateral surface of the mandible. The mandibular nerve passes through this canal, travels obliquely forward and takes a turn from the incisal region to reach the mental foramen and exit as inferior alveolar nerve and vessels. It is this inferior alveolar nerve that branches into the mental nerve which would provide sensory innervation the skin of the chin, the gingiva and mucosa in the region of anterior teeth, lower lip. It is of paramount importance that the surgeons know of
Axons descend form the pyramidal cells to the spinal cord and it conveys nerve impulses from the motor cortex to innervate skeletal muscles on the opposite side of the body (Tortora, et al, 2011). For this reason the function of the pyramidal system is to transmit information to control movement associated with the performance of the fine motor skills (Magill, 2014). Klawans (1996, p.88) stated that “it tells the spinal cord neurons when to perform a specific movement and precisely what to do in order to carry out that task: take a step, lift the leg, and bend both the hip and the
The Primary Respiratory mechanism comprises of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, intracranial and intraspinal membranes, cranial bones, spinal cord and sacrum. Involuntary rhythmic movements are produced within the skull; this circulatory activity causes reciprocal tension between the membranes thus transmitting motion between them (Downey, 2004). Sutherland describes dilation of lateral ventricles as inhalation; it occurs in the third and forth ventricle which causes the spinal cord to be pulled upwards resulting in fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid. On a similar
The human brain has developed to endure motivated cognition and behaviors that are critical to survival of one’s group. A study was done to determine if parochial altruism influences the brain biologically via oxytocin. Oxytocin is a hormone and neurotransmitter that is produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream where it does many things including the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Oxytocin is found to be released into the blood stream when associating with close kin and triggers numerous receptors that the brain links with empathy, generosity and increases the tendency towards trust and cooperation.
How the Brain Influences Positive Relationships Description: The brain regions, the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior temporal lobe are responsible controlling social decisions and social behavior. Thus these brain regions are responsible for forming relationships, comparing oneself to others, interpreting behavior, and dealing with hunger or sleep. The medial prefrontal cortex is a part of the frontal lobe, which is responsible to for the rational control center of the brain and processing higher order thinking and problem solving. Thus affecting how an individual assess the mental state of another individual in a social setting. The anterior temporal lobe evaluates the social and emotional aspects of a situation and processes facial recognition.
Neural Influences involves understanding that aggression is not solely formed in one particular area of the brain. Yet, researchers have identified several different parts of the brain involved in the production and control of aggressive behaviour, these included the hypothalamus and the amygdala. The hypothalamus is section of the brain, which helps form new memories, coordinates both the automatic nervous system and the activity of the pituitary. The amygdala is involved with experiencing
They have the ability to transmit the signals among the nerve cells. They had known as neurons. Also, communicate the information throughout the body and brain. The brain utilizes neurotransmitters to inform the lungs, heart and stomach to do their functions. Those like, lungs to breath, heart to beat and stomach to digest.
The hypothalamus communicates to each lobe differently. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is a nervous system connection with direct connecting neurons. The neurons are located in the hypothalamus and then axons extend down to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe.
The pons are a part of the metencephalon in the hindbrain. The medulla oblongata is located between the pons and spinal cord. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The midbrain is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement. The pons are involved in motor control and sensory analysis.
When stimulated by odor molecules, these nerve cells trigger electrical impulses to the olfactory bulb in the brain. These transmissions then travel to the gustatory center (where the sensation of taste is perceived), the amygdale (where emotional memories are stored), and other parts of the limbic system. The limbic system is directly connected to those parts of the brain that control heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, memory, stress and hormone balance. Therefore, inhaling essential oils can have profound physiological and psychological
Scents, sounds, images, and physical sensations from your environment are taken in and processed in the thalamus. The thalamus is the area of the brain that is responsible for taking all of your sensory responses and blending them together into coherent, logical experiences. Next, these sensations travel to two directions to an area of your brain called the amygdala, on to your unconscious mind, up to your frontal lobe, and finally, it reaches your conscious awareness. The amygdala job is to determine if incoming information is necessary for survival. In cases when processing in the thalamus breaks down sensory responses are converted into isolated codes in your brain, dissociated fragments, and disintegrated memory processing happens.