Km and Vmax could not be determined accurately using the Michaelis-Menten graph as it doesn’t plateau at 37/65°C , because a high enough substrate concentration was not used at regular intervals. Table 6 shows that Km value for 65°C is lower than 37°C which suggest that a higher affinity of trypsin to BAPNA at 65°C; because a higher collision frequency would occur due to an increase in kinetic energy and seems more efficient. However, a higher Vmax at 37°C indicates that trypsin was saturated with BAPNA because the optimum temperature of trypsin is 37°C. In figure 1 at higher temperatures the reaction plateaus at a faster rate as the enzymes active sites become denatured. The Eadie-Hofstee kinetics graphs shows the value for Km at 37°C is higher than at 65°C, which supports calculations of Km and Vmax found from graphpad.
Some of the pros are; “significant increase in horsepower, gives smaller engines a chance to gain much more power relative to their size, gets better fuel economy with engines that use less fuel to idle, turbochargers run off gases that would be expelled through the exhaust pipe and improves the efficiency”(“The Pros and”… page 1). There are also some cons of turbochargers, and one of the main ones is called “turbo lag”. Turbo lag is caused because it takes time to spool up the turbocharger, which means you will not receive your full power boost right away. Another big con of a turbochargers is that when they finally kick in, the power surges and could result in a collision or a crash. One of the last major cons of a turbo is that they require the use of oil.
Use a stopwatch to track the time of the combustion of ethanol. While the water within the beaker is being heated, use a stirring rod to stir it. Put the fire out when 4 minutes have elapsed. For safety precautions, let it cool off a bit before using the scale to measure and record, the final mass of the alcohol burner containing the ethanol. Subtract the mass of the alcohol burner gained in step 4 to achieve the final mass of the alcohol.
the average fuel economy for a gas truck is around 14mpg. Along with the poor fuel economy, the gas that goes through the truck does not burn as clean. When the gas does not burn as clean, that means that it puts out more pollution than a diesel engine. A diesel engine also has 25-30% better fuel economy that a gas engine. With the 25-30% better fuel economy, a diesel engine can deliver much more fuel economy that electric hybrids.
High cetane number fuels generally cause lower combustion noise, improved control of combustion, resulting in increased engine efficiency and power output. CN = (u40 + 17.8) 1587.9/ ρ40 Where; u40 is the Kinematic viscosity at 40°C, mm2/sec ρ40 is the density of the fuel at 40°C, Kg/ m3 Flash Point The flash point is the temperature
The basic principle of the most vehicles on either in land, air or water is mixing fuel and air. Cars, trucks, jet engines, and motorcycles mixed fuel and air to become power and burn in cylinders inside the engine. The amount of fuel and air that enters the engine varies from time to time, depending on the time running, speed, and other factors. However, modern vehicles use and electronic devices to control the amount of air and fuel that enters the system called fuel injection Carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi de Cristoris on 1876. After a few years, Karl Benz made his own carburettor when he developed the first automobile run by internal combustion.
Since the product I am investigating is in gaseous state, I will also have to use the formula: pV = nRT in which p is pressure (Pa), V is volume (m3), n is molar quantity (mol), T is temperature (K) and R is the gas constant which is 8.314 J/kmol. Research question: What is the molar mass of SO2 and does it depend on the volume of HCl used in the reaction? My hypothesis is that the molar mass of SO2 [ M(SO2) ] will be around 60-70 g/mol based on my previously gained knowledge of the molar masses of Sulphur (~32Da) and Oxygen (~16Da) which I got from the periodic table of elements. Also I believe that it will not depend on any other factor because molar mass is a constant property of a substance or element and does not
Introduction: Internal combustion engines play a dominant role in transportation and energy production. Even a slight improvement will translate into considerable reductions in pollutant emissions and impact on the environment. The two major types of internal combustion engines are the Otto and the Diesel engine. The former relies on an ignition source to start combustion, the latter works in auto ignition mode. An ignition system is a system for igniting a fuel-air mixture.
Butanol has a lower vapor pressure, which reduces the chance of vapor lock Butanol is safer to handle with a Reid Value of 0.33 psi, which is a measure of a fluid's rate of evaporation when compared to gasoline at 4.5 and ethanol at 2.0 psi. Butanol is an alcohol that can be but does not have to be blended with fossil fuels. Butanol because of improved combustion efficiency when consumed in an internal combustion engine yields no SOX, NOX or carbon monoxide all environmentally harmful byproducts of combustion. CO2 is the combustion byproduct of butanol, and is considered environmentally 'green'. Butanol is far less corrosive than ethanol and can be shipped and distributed through existing pipelines and filling stations.
Another factor that can affect the chemical reaction is temperature. It can affect the enzymes by changing their speed and at a certain temperature denaturing them.When enzymes and substrates are moving quickly, they are more likely to collide and have a chemical reaction. The warmer the temperature the faster the chemical reaction is to a certain degree. The chemical reaction was the most effective at 40 because the enzymes and substrates were moving fast, but the temperature was not high enough to denature the enzyme. After 40 degrees, the temperature increase became harmful to the chemical reaction.