Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with the other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concern itself with understanding the interaction between the various system of the cell ,including the interactions between types of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interaction are regulated. The study of physical, chemical and biological macromolecules is termed as Molecular Biology. Max Pertuz is known as the father of molecular biology.
The size of these fragments varies hence generate a biological bar code of restriction enzyme- digested DNA fragments. This pattern is unique to each individual. Restriction enzymes are fore sighted to be an integral part of the modern genetics. (3,
Conclusion We discussed few grand area of research in mining biological data. Bioinformatics is the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied to gene-based drug discovery and development. The next level bio-informatics is re-encoding DNA sequences by Gene editing (or genome editing) is the insertion, deletion or replacement of DNA at a specific site in the genome of an organism or cell. It is achieved using engineered nucleases also known as molecular scissors.
Molecular biologists play an important role, not only in the scientific field but also in their communities locally. Molecular biologists are scientists who study cellular function. Molecular biologists have a variety of tasks they do throughout their career, some of their general duties include performing experiments to learn more about cellular function. Their experiments usually have to do with DNA synthesis and how cells and molecules communicate, organize, and operate. They then share these findings through academic publications (“What is a”).
Protein synthesis Introduction Translation or protein synthesis is a central process of central dogma of molecular biology. It deals with production of proteins or chains of amino acids by making use of a mRNA as a template, ribosomes as protein synthesizing machinery and tRNA’s as carriers of amino acids during the translation process Living cells devote about 90 % of their chemical energy to synthesis of proteins and only about 10 % to other biosynthetic processes. More than 35% of the dry weight of the cell consists of ribosomes, proteins involved in translation process and tRNA molecules. This suggests that protein synthesis is an important process for the survival of microorganisms Protein synthesis process in
Gaps where primer was are then filled by yet more complementary nucleotides. 9. To make sure there is no mistake in new DNA molecule the new strand is proofread. 10. Finally, enzyme called DNA ligase seal up the sequence of DNA into two continuous double strands.
The polymerase chain reaction is a laboratory process in which a specific sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is amplified producing many copies of the specific DNA sequence. However, their must be components such as (DNA template, primers, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTP’s), buffer solution, and magnesium chloride salt solution) are required to carry out the process which undergoes through three major stages to make the copies of DNA segment. First stage is denaturation, after that annealing, then extension. However, this can be done if and only if the 3’ and 5’ ends are known, this helps in initiating DNA synthesis in which it is ensured that two short oligonucleotides acts as primer will anneal onto DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction process is used as a diagnostic and research tool due to the fact that it can be done within a few hours which makes it a rapid assay.
They also can act as carrier for the dissemination of other MGE like transposons and integrons. Natural plasmids most of the time form the basis for the new molecular development of tools for organisms that lack basic genetic systems for manipulation and functional anatomy. So the development of strategies and a clear explanation of mechanisms of host and microbe interactions in the gut , microbiota need the development of molecular tools which primary in the characterization of species. Plasmids and other MGE associated with the gut microbiota will provide a source of genetic material to develop the tools to transfer
3. Explain how genes, chromosomes, DNA, and genomes all relate to one another and their importance to psychology. Genes are the biochemical units of heredity that makes up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein. Chromosomes are threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. DNA is a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosome.
Expression proteomics is a large scale analysis of protein expression and it can help to identify main protein that are found in a particular sample and proteins that are expressed differently in related sample; for example damaged vs healthy tissue. Any protein found in a damaged tissue or sample may represent useful drug target or diagnostic marker. Samples can be labelled at the protein or peptide level as in 2D-DIGE and 18O labelling. In this analysis it can be said that proteins with similar expression profiles may also be functionally