Translation is the observable fact that has significant impact on routine life. It may include the translation of highly valuable international treaty or it may involve an advertising poster that provides some information to the customers or conveys some message to the visitors in a hotel or restaurant. (Hatim and Munday, 2005, p. 03). Problems in Translation The main problem faced by a translator is the lack of word by word matching between languages. This is fact that each and every language has its own manner of depicting incidents or reality and the translator have to take the unique aspects of both the source and target languages into account while translating.
It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text. Thus, translator has to be sensitive and professional. On the other hand, the object of translation aesthetics is the original text and translated text. The origin text should have value to be translated and include the aspects of informative, inspirational, enlightening and descriptive. After knowing the object and subject of translation aesthetic, the other important aspect people should know is that the aesthetic of translation has to suit the local culture.
At this point, it became clear that language is an integral part of every culture and that, as such, it serves as a medium of its expression. Consequently, many aspects of culture are embedded in language. The act of translation, thus, is not simply a matter of language, but it, in fact, constitutes a sort of compromise between two cultures. Mary Snell-Hornby calls this new development "the Cultural Turn" (The Turns of Translation Studies 47). This marked the shift from the traditional approach to translating, which was largely prescriptive, source-text oriented, linguistic and atomistic to an approach that was descriptive, target-text oriented, functional and systemic (Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies 49).
Koller (1995, p. 196) said that a translation is the process of transposing the source language to the target language which has a relationship which is defined as equivalence relation. Unlike general English translation, translating legal English document is much more difficult because it is not just about transferring one language into another, but also finding the equivalent legal translation in the target language. In this case, a translator plays a great role to the success and failure of the translation. If a translator does not give enough attention to the context and the background of the text, it will result an ambiguous translation or even bias meanings. The failure mostly occurs in translating legal terms is mainly caused by non-equivalence or incongruity between SL and TL (Biel,
It is an extra textual feature. But translator’s presence can be found withinthe text. This can be deduced be analyzing how has the text been translated? In these concepts like translator’s poetics, power relations, translational norms, and translational interpretation play the part. All these concepts are looked upon as different ways of trying to make visible the textual category of translator.
They reveal the two very different mental states of the translators when translating, first, the translator isn’t even thinking; second, s/he performs pragmatic, cultural and linguistic analysis. It emphasizes on the factor of experience and background on the outcome of translation. Chapter 5 explores what people do with language, and the link between contexts and meanings. This discussion shows that who wrote the text, for what reason and for whom, are all factors that contribute to the split between the theoretical and practical of
This implies that a true translation is a diaphanous body and the original is the heart that shines through the pure language in the act of translation. Here the purpose of pure language is not to produce a literal copy of the original, but, rather to “harmonize” or to bring together the different languages in a way that allows a rebirth of the translation yet at the same time permits the continued growth of the original. This image represents a ghost that mediates between the original and the translation through pure language. That is, language has a soul and that soul has a body, namely, translation. This process is a complementary one which cannot unfold by treating only one
(Gil and Guzmán 2010) Every aspect of our social and political life is now heavily mediated by translators and interpreters, hence their increased visibility. As Isaac Bashevis Singer said: "the translator must be a great editor, a psychologist, a judge of human taste; if not, his translation will be a nightmare." Translation has various domains and one of them is legal translation. A legal translation is any used within the legal system including documents such as contracts, international instruments, affidavits, regulations, laws, legal certifications and statements…etc. In new approach to legal translation, Susan Šarčević says: "Although translations of legal documents are among the oldest and most important in the world, legal translation has been neglected in both translation and legal studies.
To complicate things further, the professional domination of and practice of technical translators tend to blur borders or make them overlap. In fact, strictly speaking, technical translation is a specialization in its own right. It covers the translation of any material belonging to a particular area of knowledge, technical field or technology (e.g. mechanical engineering, hydraulics, electrical engineering, business management, etc. ), providing the materials require specialist knowledge of the subject matter.
Using Machine Translation in Literary Translation The technological innovations and information revolution have helped the development of language industries and the enlargement of multilingualism. The use of machine translation has experienced unprecedented growth with many different new techniques and demands. However, the main objective of researchers in an Internet-dominated environment has been the fast and quick development of translation systems that are both accurate and effective. Translation plays an important role in increasing understanding and awareness among different cultures and nations. In particular literary translations help these different cultures understanding each other.