conduct. Some argue that secularism in the form of french laicité is ill-equipped with the rise of Islam in Europe due to migration and other factors. Among the biggest controversies of french laicité are the bans on ostentatious religious symbols in state institutions which, in the opinions of many, are discriminatory towards muslim women wearing religious dress codes. Secularism is not inherently a feminist principle and as it was already shown, its early history wasn't egalitarian. Despite that, I argue that secularism became a successful feminist tool for the feminist movement starting from the 19th century.
It is difficult to define the precise time period of secularism. In fact, scholars determine that its origins lie within Christianity (Topal, 2011, p.3), which nowadays seems incontestably controversial, as the basic meaning is to differentiate religion and state. This does not only emphasize the important influence that Christianity has had on secularism, but also the one the Western world has had, as it is where this type of religion is predominating. Graeme Smith, the Head of Department of Theology, Philosophy and Religious Study at the University of Chichester, discusses the origins of secularism in his book “A Short History of Secularism”. His concept of secularism can be seen as crucial and fundamental in understanding secularism, how
( Joan Scott) The ideas about women being more spiritual and less intellectual were widespread among secularist movements in Europe. Moreover, the previously discussed differences suggested in religiosity of genders were reasons for low participation of women in early secularist movement (Infidel Feminism). Women were often excluded from the secularist movement as it emphasised rationalist intellectualism which was not compatible with Victorian understanding of femininity. Therefore, it would be misleading to suggest that secularism is inherently a feminist principle. Despite that, secularism was embraced by feminists and eventually adopted as a principle favouring gender-equality for its stance on neutrality of citizenship and a potential to ensure a weaker role of the Church in state affairs, which would ease the campaigning for gender equality.
Someone who identifies themself to be secular, may look at life missing of supernatural or godly abilities and anomalies. They may look towards reason and scientific method than religious literature for how to steer their lives. Another meaning, which refers more towards the point of this essay, is political secularism, which is the motion that political institutions hold true to the laws of governance, and not to adhere to church or religion for instruction. For the better part of human history, church has had strong ties to many government entities. The Roman Catholic Church had very strong influence over the vast majority of Western Europe.
More feminists today tend to rethink secularism in the context of globalisation and multicultural society by suggesting that multiculturalism requires acceptance of communatarism, where religious communities can practice their traditions and culture even when those contradict with “western notion of human rights”. By the late 1980s, there were clear signs of adopting new way of thinking following the suggested failure of feminism of the 20th century. In this time new feminist discourses emerged, different in aspiration and visions including to the question of religion. Among those discourses is multiculturalism and above all, the emergence of a notion about Religious feminism as a distinctive political movement with a prominent example of Islamic feminism. Mir-Hosseini describes this phenomenon as ‘feminist in its aspiration and demands, yet Islamic in its language and sources of legitimacy.’ Thus, the secular characteristics of feminism, even if still strongly manifested in western Europe, now often clash with new wave of religious and multicultural discourses.
Both articles formulated that civil religion is a “source of social and cultural coherence and even unity,” (Williams 2013; 240) with that it provides a set of beliefs, rituals, and the means to formulate a sense transcendent. Williams (2013) mainly focus on civil religion’s ability to critique society, as suggested by Bellah and Gorski. Civil religion provides a moral standard of what America should be, it “heighten boundaries and convinces people that those boundaries are natural and even sacred.” (254) (the term boundaries here I believe is both physical and metaphysical, not simply national territory, but the boundary for identity) It connects the nation to the transcendent. Williams and Fuist (2014) were more interested in the effect of the weakening nation-state. As nation-state being threatened by the neoliberal globalization and ethno-religious national sentiments, it seems diversity and tension within America are strengthened, with the fear of immigrants being very obvious.
Before a genuine dialogue begins, each religion must first set aside their exclusivist attitudes- but not setting aside all their beliefs- and be open to what others believe and through this, each religion will not only understand the faith of others but they can also have a deeper understanding of their faith. They must recognize the fact that their dissimilarities has rooted in their differences of culture which contributed in their differences of accepting, understanding and interpreting God’s revelation, they must recognize the fact that “in our less-than-perfect world even the religious community inspired by belief in the incarnate Word of God and the guidance of the Holy Spirit remains far from the state of eschatological perfection”. Since these revealed religions are works, not only of God but also of man, one religion cannot be identified as the only source of truth. The researcher has stated earlier in this chapter the special case of Christianity- due to the fact that the unfathomable God was made known through his son Jesus Christ. It is for this reason, the researcher contends, that the Church is the main advocator of interreligious dialogue; it might seem that this is an exclusivist claim but the researcher does not aim in stressing the primacy of Christianity.
Religion is an almost universal institution in human society and an integral part of our lives. Every religion preaches morality and love for everything around us. Religion teaches compassion and helps to find ourselves. It affects both: on the processes which are taking place within society and on each person in the whole. Many of us consider religion universal and, this means, a significant institution of societies.
It is a linkage to our inner beings and through the belief of God to dedicate our lives in helping others and in the pursuit of self happiness. As noted by Parvati Raghuram "For many, religion relates primarily to belief systems with a commitment to some normative values and some social order" (Skeleton & Allen, 1999) . Religion offers a structure that facilitates honourable thinking and encourages individuals to act sincerely in a formidable
Introduction: The resurgence of religious fundamentalism can be presumed to stem from the failures, weaknesses and crises that have occurred within Modernity (Zeidan, 2003). As the strength of nation-states has gradually decreased and the populations’ dissent and dissatisfaction is growing there is increasing room within the public and political sphere for formal and religious values (Zeidan, 2003). As a result this essay will demonstrate by looking at the rise of modernity, the shift to a secular framework within a modern society, the marginalization of religion and the oppressive nature of a secular framework within a modern society. Reference to both Sunni Fundamentalism and American Protestantism will highlight the conflicts as well as