4.3.2 Nationalism and Multilateralism Nationalism is known as an ideology that individual 's loyalty to the nation, surpassing other individual or group interest. This action could be achieved either through economic, social, or political action. The sense of nationalism generally was aimed to maintained national self-determination and to maintain a nation need to have national identity, something that distinguish them from other nation. That is why national flags, anthem, symbol, language, and myth are very important for nationalism. Nationalism itself is a modern movement, in which only when the end of the 18th century come that the sentiment of people toward their nation was recognized.
In wikipedia.org nationalism is defined as "essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one 's nation.". Merriam-Webster dictionary defines nationalism as " a feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief that it is better and more important than other countries: a desire by a large group of people (such as people who share the same culture, history, language, etc.) to form a separate and independent nation of their own" .It is a broad term that covers a wide range of meanings. The basic thing in nationalism is the love of one 's country and a wish to see it politically independent. Nationalism is one of the forces that shape the national and cultural identity of a people.
In this kind of situation, the nationalists, patriots were eager to save their motherlands and found proper ways to become independent and strong. Different nations had resistance for many times. For instance, Indian Rebellion of 1857; Rebellion in Vietnam between 1891 and 1898 led by Hoàng Hoa Thám; Philippines struggled to overthrow the Spanish rule from 1896 to 1898. All in all, the oppressed Asians never stopped to struggle for independence and freedom. In addition, Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary theory and its great practice had an important impact on the liberation movement of the oppressed peoples of Asia.
Although the supreme judge in here may be pointing to different gods, both cultures wanted desperately that their god would help and support their independence. Another factor to see is the reasoning behind the independence. The American Declaration of Independence states three fundamental rights being violated: life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Same as the American counterpart, the Korean Declaration of Independence mentions the distinctive rights to be liberty, freedom and the pursuit of happiness of a full life. It can be seen that both nations evaluate their colonists as those who neglect and divest their most fundamental rights.
Nationalism is a system created by people who believe their nation is superior to all others. It 's most often based on a shared ethnicity. It can also be based on a shared language, religion, culture, or set of social values. The nation emphasizes shared symbols, folklore, and mythology. Shared music, literature, and sports further strengthen nationalism.
Critics of affirmative action frequent describe the policy as being unfair, asserting that it contravenes a conserved system of meritocracy in the country by basing selection decisions on demographic characteristics at the expense of ability and achievement (Thernstrom & Thernstrom, 1997). Defenders take a different position that can be explained by two facts: racism and sexism are still present in the United States society and affirmative action is the most efficient and effective way of reducing discrimination than the present alternatives. However, affirmative action increases fusion and fairness in employment and in education because it works as a proactive observing system. As Crosby and Smith (2005) consider, “such policies may help ensure that patterns of bias—including selective system bias— are uncovered and
Redefining nationalism in the modern world The modern political concept of nationalism addresses some fixed notions. Nationalism is defined as formation of a distinct identity for a certain population in terms of their religion, ethnicity or class differences. It is a feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief that it is better and more important than other countries; a desire by a large group of people who share the same history, culture, language, etc. to form a separate and independent nation of their own. (Agarwal,2005) and (Kapur,2003) Rabindranath Tagore stated that “Our mind has faculties which are universal, but its habits are insular.” (Quayum , n.d) Redefining nationalism means changing the traditional concept of believing that citizenship in a state should be limited to one ethnic, cultural, religious, or identity groups or that multi nationality in a single state should necessarily be comprised of the right to express and exercise national identity, even by minorities.
Nationalism is an idea which fills man’s brain and heart with new thoughts and new sentiments and drives him to translate his consciousness into deeds of organized action. Nation is therefore not only a group held together and animated by common consciousness; but it is also a group seeking to find its expression in what it regards as the highest form of organized activity, a sovereign state. Nationalism demands the nation-state; the creation of the nation-state strengthens nationalism. There is a continuous interdependence and interaction between them. According to John Breuilly, The term ‘nationalism’ is used to refer to political movements seeking or exercising state power and justifying such action with nationalist arguments.
In the film, we see great efforts to protect the country from colonization. “Malaking trabaho pagkaisahin ang bansang watak-watak.” Gen. Antonio Luna said to the Joven, the journalist interviewing him. He wanted to change the system and unite the Filipinos. He believes that if the Filipinos were united, they would win the war. But that is a problem also because of regionalism.
Finally there might be a tendency to forget the national language. The historical backdrop of the Filipino dialect was a fight for our precursors. Dialect, to them, implied opportunity. Blood and Ink was shed for our privileges of freedom to be pronounced. The battle of responsibility for, citizenship for our kin and a dialect for our nation motivated our national saints, particularly our most revered, Dr. Jose P. Rizal.