The fact that distinctive feature theory relies on the organization of phonemes into specific classes and rule formalizations allowed me to further look into whether or not allophones should be allowed in distinctive feature theory. Maddieson, Ian. 1987. Revision of the IPA: Linguo-Labials as a Test Case. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 17.1.
The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
Sounds must be examined and evaluated in order to comprehend their purpose in a certain language. In phonological analysis, there is a need to establish whether two sounds in a given language belong to two separate phonemes or are allophones of a single phoneme. In order to gather this information, an examination of the distribution of the sounds are done. The distribution of a phone is a set of phonetic environments in which it occurs. (lang files) The contrastive distribution or complementary distribution of two sounds in a language is dependent upon the environments in which they belong.
In the first case Saussure (1916) established that it is formed by the signified and signifier. Each of them has different approaches to learn the language. In the signifier it could be found the phonetic and the phonologic so it is a proper way to understand what are the sound of the different words and interpret them in a correct manner. However the signified is created by the use of the morphology, semantic and syntax, which are the main features of language. But Generativism differs from Structuralism in that part of the study of language, the main reason of that opposition is that Chomsky (1957) propose an alternative in the linguistic sign, so the main goal of that approach was to offers a number of element that help to understand the language such as phonology and
Introduction Young and Sachs (1) showed that speech formants are conserved in the auditory nerve discharge pattern. Following their work, Greenberg (2) used complex stimuli to record speech ABR. He demonstrated that vowel formants can be truly encoded in the auditory brainstem response. (2) This stimulus reliability was further confirmed by Galbraith et al. who showed that words elicit a speech ABR that can be heard (3, 4) Many complex stimuli have been investigated to assess how the temporal and spectral features of sound stimuli are maintained in the auditory brainstem response.
Another typology in semantic change was given by Darmesteter, he was the first to give the program for semantics which linked in its broad scope that of Reising before him and Breal after him. Darmesteter has describe language having two main features, it is ‘physical and intellectual’ which results in ‘phonetic alteration’, and the next one is ‘psychological and psychological in character’ which result in ‘ alteration in grammar i.e. analogical change and lexicon i.e. neologism’. Darmesteter main focus was to find the causes and laws of semantic change, and he regarded figure of speech, such as metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche to describe the transitions between the meanings of words (Darmesteter 1887).
Even though all of the elements of interest must interact, it is possible to differentiate individual elements that compose a meaningful language. Troike states phonology as an element of a language used in the acquisition of a second language. Phonology is that element of a language that shows the different sounds of a speech thereby creating different meanings. It defines the possible sequences of vowels and consonants in what is referred to as a syllable structure. Further, phonology deals with intonation patterns that include
The machine models are the mimic of human speech production system or human auditory system. In the distributed communication network transmitted speech is degraded by the channel noise or other kind of distortions. To maintain the quality of speech at different points of communication system the quality enhancement techniques are applied. Before applying the enhancement techniques the assessment of quality at different nodes is also required. In the literature of speech signal processing numbers of speech quality assessment methods are described.
Speaker identification is the process of determining which registered speaker provides a given utterance. Each block of the speaker recognition system can be described as below; • Input Speech: Input speech is the signal given by the speaker to the above system. Normally the human speech is the pure analogue signal, thus in order to process the signal further the analogue signal has to be converted to the digital signals. This conversion can be done by using the techniques such as sampling and quantization which is known as digital signal processing. But for the above system, the input speech signal is already given in the digital form which can be done by recording the voices of the speaker.
In addition, the relationship between types of sentences and functions will determine whether the speaker’s utterance is categorized as direct or indirect speech act. Literature review Classification of Speech Acts The sentence is an important element of language because people do use a sentence to utter