Difference Between Prokaryotes And Eukaryotes

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Gerald McDonnell

1. The major differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes are as follows; prokaryotes are much smaller than eukaryotes, prokaryotes have a nucleoid instead of a nucleus (which eukaryotic cells have), prokaryotes lack a membrane bound organelles while eukaryotes have them, prokaryotes are bacterial cells while eukaryotes can be considered the building blocks of plant and animal life.
2. A. A nucleus is basically the “brain” of a cell. It controls reproduction and contains the genetic information needed to reproduce. It can be found in eukaryotic cells.
B. Endoplasmic reticulum- there are two types, the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is involved in synthesizing and packaging proteins for use. It has ribosomes attached to it which is what makes it rough. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions as storage for lipids and sterols. Only eukaryotic cells have an endoplasmic reticulum.
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Ribosomes are found in both types of cells. Ribosomes make proteins by connecting chains of amino acids together for the cell to use.
D. The Golgi apparatus turns simple molecules into larger, more complex ones and packages them in vesicles for storage and transport. This is only found in eukaryotic cells.
E. Vacuoles are storage facilities for either nutrients for or waste from the cell. Vacuoles are found in eukaryotic cells. They are much larger in plants and help maintain the form of the plant cell by filling with water.
F. Lysosomes contain enzymes created by the cell for use in digestion. It is created through the work of both the ER (enzymes made here) and the Golgi apparatus (packages the proteins into a lysosome). Found in eukaryotic

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