The divine command theory, utilitarianism, Kant’s duty defined morality, natural law theory, and Aristotle’s virtue ethics are the five types of ethical theories. The divine command theory states that what is morally right and wrong will be decided by God. Utilitarianism states that “Action “A” is morally right if and only if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness. Kant’s duty defined morality states that what is important is acting for the sake of producing good consequences, no matter what the act is. Natural law theory states that people should focus on the good and avoid any evil.
This seems to make sense, as if one is a moral person, there must be some aim of the morality. She continues this by saying “For surely he must want others to be happy. To deny this would be to deny that benevolence is a virtue-and who wants to deny that?” (47) By saying this, she says that benevolence, or caring about others’ welfare or happiness, is definitely a virtue. She then continues, “a benevolent person must often aim at the good of others and call it ‘a good thing’” (48). This provides an adequate definition of what a benevolent person is.
Ethically, man should have respect for the environment as it has inherent worth and value. For this reason, humans are do not have extra privileges, the world is based on an interdependent system, all life form is goal directed, and the belief in human superiority counterproductive to the equal status that is shared. Reading Question 2: What conditions does Kant describe as be necessary to make peace possible? Several hundred years later does it look like Kant was right? And what are the prospects for peace,
Consequentialist believe that morality is about producing the right overall consequences, and that the action brings about either happiness, freedom or survival of species. Utilitarianism is an example of consequentialism that maximizes utility (happiness). The difference between utilitarianism and consequentialism is that a utilitarian overlooks justice, as long as an utilitarian can maximize pleasure they would do whatever it takes. Consequentialist enjoy maximizing pleasure like a utilitarian, but they also take into account autonomy and justice. A consequentialist believes that determining good by measuring the outcome, if the good for all in the act is greater than the bad for all in the act, it is deemed morally good.
ARISTOTLE ANALYSIS OF JUSTICE The first thorough analysis of the concept of justice is still the best. In one sense it implies to the whole of virtue. A just and a moral right person is one who always done what is morally right and obeys the law justice in this sense is called universal justice in the eyes of Aristotle. More precisely and particularly justice consist of taking only a proper share of some good. JUSTICE IN NICOMACHEAN ETHICS: Aristotle observed in book V of the nicomachean ethics that the word justice is has a double meaning as: “Justice can mean either lawfulness or fairness, since injustice is lawlessness and unfairness.
Charlie Gordon's doctors did not act ethically when they performed the surgery to make him smarter. Although these controversial statements with the doctor's unethical treatment of the patients in Flowers for Algernon, I believe that the doctors did the right thing with the patient and acted in the well-being of the patient. Charlie Gordon's doctors acted ethically when they performed the surgery to make him smarter. In real life doctor's have to make these same decisions today. They should always make the ethical decision of caring for their patient and being their friend just like Dr. Strauss and Dr.
There are two types of utilitarianism: Act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism is a belief in which, an individual’s actions are moral as long as the actions produce the greatest outcome possible. Rule utilitarianism is a belief in which, an action is morally right, as long as it justified in accordance to a particular law. Utilitarianism is less complicated to understand (compared to other moral theories) because it consists of “doing whatever produces the best consequences” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Virtue Ethics). Mill viewed the greatest happiness principle as the cornerstone of morals, he
This conception allows him to isolate two features of what he determines the ‘end goal’ or ‘final purpose’. The first, it being the most perfect or most complete good and the second, that it be self sufficient. This end is not a subjective object of desire. It also cannot be assumed that this human good is something which all humans pursue. Rather, it is what we should pursue and as such provides us with a standard that can normatively evaluate the good of human life.