pay and bonuses) as well as through the avoidance of disincentives (e.g. threats and discipline). Theory X managers typically assume employees possess unfavorable opinions about work, are incapable of self-direction, need top-down direction, must be forced to work, and avoid taking responsibility for organizational results” (Russ, 2011). Thus, explaining why Theory X managers usually assume that employees must be controlled or directed for adequate effort to be displayed on objectives. An additional point made in the textbook is that Theory X is a conventional view and can be characterized in
Theory X and Theory Y are two competing theories that Douglas McGregor originated in 1957 and was developed during 1960 in his book “The Human Side of Enterprise.” The theories explain human motivation at work; the theories do not determine what motivates individuals outside of work. The theories have been used in business so that people can better understand what motivates individuals at work. Managers especially need to determine which theory they lean to, so as they will know how to motivate their employees. However, often the theory can be determined by the type of employees that are under the mangers supervision and the industry the work is being undertaken. If managers believe that their employees do not take pleasure in work and are
Needham (1999) argued that the Maslow's hierarchy needs theory is too rigid because differs workers on different position have different needs and priorities, furthermore, they may have different motivators impact on their performance. Herzberg’s two factor theory Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory (Herzberg 1987), assumes that workers are motivated by two sets of factors: motivation and hygiene. The motivation factors such as: achievement, participation, recognition, involvement, delegation and autonomy, if they are met will motivate employees too. In contrast to the factors of motivation, hygiene factors such as salary, working conditions, policies and administration are not met lead to dissatisfaction in workers (Saiyadain 2009). John (2007) argues that a large responsibility for the creation and handle motivation systems of employees rests on the shoulders of business leaders.
Theory X and Theory Y were first explained by McGregor in his book, 'The Human Side of Enterprise,' and they refer to two styles of management authoritarian which is (Theory X) and participative (Theory Y). This is the one of the theory that some of the organisation can apply, if believe that any of the organisation team members dislike their work, do not perform well and have little motivation, then, according to McGregor, an organisation can use an authoritarian style of management which means this approach is very "hands-on" and usually involves micromanaging people's work to ensure that it gets done properly and McGregor called this as Theory X. On the other hand, if believe that an organisation people take pride in their work and see it as a challenge then it’s more likely adopt a participative management style. Managers who use this approach trust their people to take ownership of their work and do it effectively by themselves and help in increasing the company’s outcomes with their performance it’s called as Theory Y. CONTENT I.
1.0 Theory X and Y Douglas McGregor's theory X and Y described two assumptions that managers make to motivate and value employees. McGregor claim that Theory X assume employees dislike working, require coercion to complete assigned tasks and look for guidance. In contrast, Theory Y managers assume workers care about the organization; seek for responsibility and capable of regulating their performance. McGregor believed that this theory provides managers a more reality-centred, flexible approach in formulating their organization controlling (Sager, 2015). 1.1 Management Style of Theory X While looking into the management style, Theory X is negatively related to followers’ satisfaction towards leaders (Gürbüz, Şahin and Köksal, 2014).
Theory Xand Y There is another theory called Theory X and Y using which, we can classify Googles organizational culture using these two different parts. These are two different leadership styles used by various managers. Theory X states that managers are autocratic and dictate all the work to the works as they feel that it is human tendency to avoid work and avoid responsibilities given to the employees and so if they perform the task themselves the quality of work will be poor. They believe that employees are work shy and they have a ready made excuse for failure. The managers only fulfill their minimal needs which, are the physical needs.
This view is later challenged by Douglas McGregor (1960), who presents one of the first content theories on work motivation. Taylor’s (1911) initial presumption is that humans are fundamentally unmotivated and that they will not perform without extrinsic rewards or punishment. McGregor (1960) instead presents his two opposing views on how employees are motivated; he introduces the X and Y Theory. Theory X is built on the beliefs of Taylor, that individuals largely dislike work and responsibility, have low ambitions and prefer to be under control with clear boundaries and directions. Contrary, Theory Y is built from a belief that motivation is intrinsic to the individual.
If you believe that your team members dislike their work and have little motivation, then, according to McGregor, you 'll likely use an authoritarian style of management. This approach is very "hands-on" and usually involves micromanaging people 's work to ensure that it gets done properly. McGregor called this Theory X. On the other hand, if you believe that your people take pride in their work and see it as a challenge , then you 'll more likely adopt a participative management style. Managers who use this approach trust their people to take ownership of their work and do it effectively by themselves.
He felt that employees were loyal to their bosses and not to the organization. So bureaucratic management was created so that formal structure where rules, formal legitimate authority and competence were characteristics of appropriate management practices. He believed that a supervisor 's power should be based on an individual 's position within the organization, his or her level of professional competence and the supervisor 's adherence to explicit rules and regulations (Vectorstudy.com).The bureaucratic organizational structure was developed because the organization was becoming larger and its operations were getting more complex. The bureaucratic structure has advantages as long as disadvantages but many business structures are influenced by Max Weber. In this essay, the structural pattern of bureaucratic structure, the channel of communication, advantages and disadvantages of bureaucratic structure and the five factors for
In my opinion it is really interesting that Gary Hamel does not just wants to change the management orthodoxies, but he also wants to change the managers and their thinking. That they become more aware, how to interact with their employees. That they should listen to their workers or let them be creative. Considering the fact that the managers can also be inventors. Another point that I find is good and not so good that he is criticising Max Weber’s bureaucracy traits like: control, precision, stability, discipline, and reliability.