INTRODUCTION The journal of Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights - Friends or Foes by Oonagh Reitman is discussing about the critiques of cultural relativist and feminist towards the International Human Rights. In 1989, Donnelly states that International Human Rights is universal, that human rights owned by the human with substantial, form and interpretation that will not bend to variety of culture. But the statements that are different to the cultural relativist opinion that stated the source of human rights is a culture, and as a culturally diverse, and non-universal. While the feminist critique to International Human rights that in fact, the one who holds the human rights are only men, not women, also
Both, race-conflict approach and multiculturalism, coincide with each other in the way that they explain the importance of equality among all races in the United States. They both focus on social conflict and diversity within this melting pot of a country. Race and culture encourage two diverse ideas, however they share similar goals of broadening people’s knowledge on the importance of other cultures contributions in the Americas and around the world. Equally, they share views and strong opinions on how the English way of life is not the only way people need to abide by anymore. In which, everyone is entitled to live the way there culture does without any outside dictatorship.
C. Multiculturalism, Ethnicity and Race Before presenting the field work and in order to set the framework for this research about Multiculturalism in Classical Ballet Companies Nowadays, it is appropriate to define first of all the basic concepts of this study. The key terms, will be described briefly based on what is found in general theoretical works about these concepts and based on the course ‘Discours et Multiculturalité’, taught by Laura Calabrese at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB). All the concepts related to culture and multiculturalism, such as diversity, ethnicity or race are very difficult to define clearly. Over the years many descriptions of these terms have been presented. Depending on the angle from which the researchers investigate the terms, different definitions have been given.
Introduction Universal values and human rights should serve as a bridge among all cultures and should not be submissive to social, cultural or religious norms. Cultural diversity, noting that “cultural rights” include the right to question the existing limits of culture to opt in or out of a particular cultural entities, and to continuously create new cultures. Each and every individual lives in a diverse social world but we are unaware of it. Our lives are embedded within social contexts which are infused with a kaleidoscope of individuals who are different in different ways from ourselves and others around us. The notion of difference among individuals is characterized by categories which are constructed within society and the perceptions and understanding of how the world operates and how we as members of these societies are expected to function.
Cultural minorities experience discrimination as much as ethnic minorities do because of the things about themselves that they can not change. Ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and even age bring many different types of prejudices and injustices to clients, counselors and the counseling
The Sociological Perspective of Immigration and Multiculturalism From the sociological angle, the issue of immigration and its effects on national identity and multiculturalism can be viewed from a completely different perspective. The current regime wars and other conflicts across the world have caused more human displacement and suffering than did World War II. Even as refugees move towards Europe, many die on their way along the Mediterranean region. Still, other suffer o their death in European soil. For socialists, solidarity with other suffering human beings is the only solution to the refugee and immigration crisis, regardless of other concerns such as national identity and multiculturalism.
As such the liberal and social order should be based upon guaranteed basic freedoms having their source in the cultural contexts. The cultural pluralism is found in almost all the countries of the world. Multiculturalism therefore attaches importance to the separate and distinct identity of certain neglected and stigmatised sections of society. Culture is, according to the Collins dictionary, the sum of the ideas, customs, religion and art of a particular society. Multiculturalism, then, is the meeting of different societies and their cultures, ideas, customs, religions and
Hevi Rahmania 016201400072 President University Reitman, O. (1997). “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights”,100(1), 100-110. The journal, “Cultural Relativist and Feminist Critiques of International Human Rights”, by Oonagh Reitman endeavors to address the critiques towards the International Human Rights from two different branches which are coming from cultural relativist and feminist. The addressed problem in this journal is despite the apparent tension between these two clashing critiques, there are similarities found in order for both to operate together.
In Philosophy, cultural relativism is trying to convey that everybody is equal and there no such thing as a better society in a sense. In this source it states, “Those who hold to cultural relativism hold that all religious, ethical, aesthetic, and political beliefs are completely relative to the individual within a cultural identity.” There is no ultimate standard of good and evil, and you cannot have your own opinion. Therefore, every judgement about right and wrong is a product of society. In Gallagher’s PowerPoint it states, “The cultural relativist will claim that the reason why certain actions are considered right or wrong is exactly the same reason why driving on the right side of the road is correct in the United States and is the
1.0 Part A 1.1 Multiculturalism Multiculturalism consist of ‘multi’ means multiple while ‘culturalism’ means individual person determined by their own cultures. The definition of multiculturalism is each individual came from different backgrounds, ethnicities, races, cultures or identities within a society in the world. It also emphasized each person may have similar or differences in cultural context which should be in concerns stressed the view amid in the community. Multicultural counselling is aware of each client cultural ethnicity or races which counsellor understand and provides help in making efforts to prevent prejudices affecting clients’ daily life. As an example, counsellor needs to aware own culture whether will contradict with their profession of work or not.