British English is used in the United Kingdom and also in the Commonwealth Countries as the British was responsible for the Commonwealth nations. American English is used in the United States predominantly. Although English was introduced to America by the British, there is a vast differences. This English diversity reflects to different cultures in Britain and America. Therefore, if the individuals want to better realize the different cultures between this two countries, it is necessary to cognize the three major differences between American English and British English which are vocabulary used, spelling and grammar.
American English has developed a new way of talking, partly due to the large absorption of other immigrant languages. The main difference between American English and British English is the intonation and rhythm of speech, and there are also many differences in lexical differences in terms of one word with different meanings and synonymous meanings of different words. One word which has many different meanings can be divided into three kinds of situations: (1) Some words appear in both American English and British English, however, different concepts can be called “complete differentiation”. For example, “public school” in the United States actually refers to “private school”, while in the United States it refers to the “state school” (British English is Council school) (2) Some of the words’ spellings and meanings are the same of American English and British English, but they have their own unique meanings between two countries. This is called “two-way local differentiation”.
English is today one of the most widespread languages in the world as a result of the British colonial expansion started in the seventeenth century. The colonial era is now over but its consequences are visible in the presence of English as an official language in many of the former colonies, and in addition, the contact between English and native languages created some linguistic varieties also called pidgins and creoles still spoken in many parts of the world. The varieties of English are divided into geographical groups, the main two groups are English of the British Isles and English of America. For each there are standard forms and sub varieties. In America there is a standard form of English which is referred to as General American or
Textual Analysis The focus of this chapter is on The God of Small Things, a novel in which Roy violates the “Love Laws” of the Standard English. Although the novel is written primarily in English, however, this English is highly unusual, particularly for monolingual speakers of English. This unusual uniqueness of Roy’s English arises from the use of the linguistic strategies of abrogation and appropriation. She abrogates and appropriates Standard English by using glossing, untranslated words, interlanguage and lexical and syntactical innovations. All these terms will be explained with textual examples to illustrate the use of language and its effects.
Some linguistic features of English varieties may come from stereotypes attached to the language itself, but to what extent it can be suggested that a dialect is being stereotyped? What signs can we identify as stereotypes when comes to a dialect? Leigh (2012), in his article Fingerprinting the Literary Dialects of Three Works of Plantation Fiction, believed that it would be necessary a high knowledge of ‘textual manipulation’ to demonstrate the authenticity and stereotypes of a text. Groebner (2004) (as cited in Edwards, 2009) pointed out, that the issue of identity is important when analyzing the language. The word ‘identity’ can indirectly lead us into misconceptions since it is certainly true that a language has an identity based on several factors, and those ‘elements’ bring along a set of cultural and social stereotypes that are manifested in language itself.
Due to the strength of the British Empire, English language has spread to many regions of the world. Over time, English spoken in the United States and in Britain started diverging from each other in various aspects, which led to two dialects in the form of the British English and the American English. When starting to study English as a foreign language, foreign students can choose either to study American English or British English. Schools and universities, however, usually teach British English. Recently, some schools and universities have included an analysis of the differences of the two dialects of English because of the increasing possibilities of contact with the two varieties.
PROBLEM 1: VOWEL UNDERDIFFERENTIATION [ʊ], [uː] A very common problem for Spanish speakers is the correct production of minimal pairs of vowels in English. This segmental problem is sometimes derived from the learners’ wrong perception of the sound due Spanish vowel [u]. In contrast, the Spanish vocalic system is significantly different from the English one. It is considered a negative transfer and might influence vowels production. The vowels underdifferentiation especially appears when differentiating between long and short vowels.
What is the relationship between popular culture and high culture? In this essay I intend to explore the terms popular culture and high culture and I will also look at how the relationship between these two terms has become distorted and blurred over time. In order to reinforce what I am saying about popular and high culture I will be using a range of examples to show how the line between high culture and popular culture has become blurred. We first need to define the term “culture”, so as to explain pop and high culture. According to Raymond Williams, culture is “one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language”.
The Roots of English are prominently to be found in the colonial aspect of British Empire. English is a language which is highly receptible and heterogeneous in nature. It has accepted and adapted many of the words of world languages. And that is the reason why there are a variety of Englishes. We find British English, American English, and Indian English etc.
Bhagat’s novels bring out the important role played by English language in establishing one’s position and status in present time. Even though we have seen many heated debates across the country over English versus vernacular language education, it needs to be accepted that the language of the Britishers does not belong to them anymore and is rather, a ‘lingua franca’ and the most viable medium of communication in the global context. Quoting the situation in contemporary India, Bhagat in an interview says, “It isn’t just the English versus Hindi class divide anymore….The new class divide is varying degrees of English….A lot more people are in the English fold, but with varying levels of proficiency. The elites laugh and sneer at their country cousins who are trying to learn English in India, and that is what Half Girlfriend is about.” (The National) The novel, Half Girlfriend projects the trials and tribulations of Bhagat’s hero, Madhav Jha from a rural place in Bihar, and his difficulties to make a place for himself in the upper class Delhi circle. His distress stems mainly from his inability to express himself in English.