Difference Between Normalization And De-Normalization

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Question No.1
a) Describe the difference between De-normalization and normalization with the help of examples.

Normalization and De-normalization are two processes to optimize the performance of database. Normalization is the process of creating database that is structurally consistent having no or minimum redundancy however sometimes fully normalized database does not provide maximum processing efficiency. So when performance does matter, one prefer De-normalized database. Following are the major differences between the two processes.
1. Normalization is the process of dividing the large tables into two to remove the redundancies and to achieve data integrity. While De-normalization is the reverse of normalization, in which one combines
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1. Application focus
2. Management
3. Business Model
1. Application Focus
The cloud computing focuses mainly on business and web-based applications. And one can access it by using browsers or other client side applications. While distributed computing focuses on collaboration for scientific and research projects. It is used where larger computations are required.
2. Management
Clouds operate as the centralized management system from the view point of the user, who imagines it as a single access point with which he can obtain services. For example, users who want to get cloud services they first have to register to obtain services directly. From there onward he has a single point of access.
In distributed computing there is decentralized management of systems which spans across geographically distributed sites. And each site has its own administrative control on the services.

3. Business
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3: How security can be implemented in grid and cloud computing?
Security is the major concern of every user or service provider on the internet and so is true for cloud environment as well as in the Grid Computing its very crucial issue.
Security issues and their counter measures
1. Mutli tenancy
Multi tenancy means to offer services to more than one client. The best solution to cope with this problem is mutual client isolation. That is isolating virtual data and network communication.
2. Information Assurance and Data ownership
Information assurance concerns in cloud computing involve CIA( Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability), Authenticity and Authorized use. In cloud computing, data belonging to a client is maintained by a Cloud Service Provider (CSP) who has access to it but is not the legitimate owner of the data.
The best counter measure to these concerns is to use security enforcement techniques Data encryption, access control mechanisms, Data Shredding (for dumpster divers) and Identity Management (IM).
3. Multiple-Factor

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