Goodland highlights that human development in education and nutrition is now accepted as part of economic development based on the World Bank’s report, a global partnership fighting poverty through sustainable solutions (Goodland 2). Also, he points out that the aim of community development is to solve problems and raise the individual's social, economic, cultural and educational level by making full use of human resources (Goosland 1). In Robert’s article, it became clear that it was impossible to separate both types of development; economic and social because both are a condition to achieve the other. Goodland emphasizes his claim by explaining the history of sustainability. The concept of development emerged after World War II, especially in the early 1950s, when economic and social scientists began to divide countries in terms of their economic structure, their development and their standard of living and living in different countries, developing countries and developed countries (Goodland 6).
Introduction:- Development described as a social condition within a nation in which the reliable needs of its population are satisfied by the rational and sustainable use of natural resources and systems. Meanwhile, Human development defined “as the process of enlarging people’s freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being. Human development is about the real freedom ordinary people have to decide who to be, what to do, and how to live” . Economic growth is basically defined as an increase of wealth of a nation over time. Although, economic growth and development are closely intertwined, the economic growth is but a step in the direction towards development – one of prime significance, indeed a precondition to it, but by no means
Developed countries, a term used by the International Monetary Fund (hereafter IMF), are mainly characterised by their “high-income”, generally having “a per capita GDP in excess of $15,000" and their “market-oriented economies” (Washington DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013). Developing countries, on the other end, refer to the “countries in transition” (Washington DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013). It is also important to note that developed countries tend to be of “mainly democratic nations" (Washington DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2013). Based upon the understanding that developed state are usually states that enjoy a higher GDP and of democratic system, the paper then draws the link between them and the aforementioned factors.
However, what about the progress of countries? Countries progress is essentially a group of people working together in the same land trying to achieve success in different fields such as economy, urbanization, living standards, education, health, and planning progress. People in these developing countries seek to move forward in the development process in order to meet the basic needs and to have a fulfilling life. A country’s progress is usually measured by the Human Development Index (HDI) which is probably the most recognized and accredited tool for measuring development and progression of a country. HDI evaluates and assess the progression level of a country based on four main factors or elements which are economy, urbanization, education, and planning progress.
Development is an integral part of our life. Progress of any country is depending on the development. It is affected by many factors-resources, capital, labor, technology etc. There is no any equality in the levels of development in the world. Some countries are rich in physical resources but poor in development because the lack of technology like-African countries, are called developing countries.
provision of social amenities to the people, enhancing equal distribution of power and wealth as well as aiding the economy of the country. National development refers to a nation’s ability to improve the lives of her citizens. Such measures of improvement may be material and social, where the material aspect of the improvement may entail an increase in the gross domestic product and in social aspect may entail literacy rates and availability of health-care. National development is a phenomenon that graces a nations effort geared towards an increase in political, economic, religious, social as well as the educational sector of a
Developed countries have more capital and investment. Furthermore, these nations will have higher GDP, leading high per capita income. On the other hand, the growth of the population is high and the standard of living is low in the developing nations. Most of the people will be engaged in primary sector like farming and forestry. In addition, the capital will be less and the technology will be low.
Introduction: Defining Economic Development is controversial, since we usually think in terms of underdevelopment rather than development when measuring the least developed countries. According to the textbook The Geography of the World Economy, “the term ‘development’ implies a trajectory of improvement in relative and absolute terms” (p 23). However, if we look at leading economists, nongovernmental organizations, scholars, and world leaders the term has been considered to include social well-being. Most of the Economic Development Measures only focus on how the economy is going in a country. They don’t extend to measuring the effects of people’s lives within that community.
For example over consumption of fossil fuels lead to global warming, man-made climate change, pollution of air and water. If economic advance in the present generation comes at the expense of the life chances of future generations, this should not be seen as development. As the links between economic growth and social and environmental issues are better understood, it was realised that this kind of growth cannot sustain in long run. And thus the concept of sustainable development was introduced. The famous Rio Declaration, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 (also called the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), puts it this way: Human beings are at the centre of concern for sustainable development and emphasized on “human development’’, which is measured by life expectancy, adult literacy, access to all three levels of education, as well as people’s average income which is a necessary condition of their freedom of choice.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The economies of many developing countries are currently confronted by severe difficulties owing to a combination of lower commodity prices, higher energy costs, falling exchange rates and rising inflation. At the same time, the countries face immense social problems (including a rising urban population and unemployment) which are putting pressure on the nation’s resources and capabilities. The construction industry in a typical developing country is facing reduced levels of demand as a result of adjustment programmes which invariably involve cuts in governments’ capital investment. The challenge, as Ofori (1993) suggests, is that the construction industry should do well despite the severe constraints in its operating environment. There is a growing awareness among developing countries about the significance of infrastructure supply and capacity building in construction for socio-economic development in general, and for the effective implementation of poverty reduction initiatives, in particular.