Ethics is applied in decision making in criminal justice for effective and just decisions. Normative ethics is crucial in decision-making in the criminal justice system and it is based on the notion that one should act morally using reason to determine the suitable way of conduct of self. Ethical relativism is part of normative ethics and it argues that what is morally right or wrong varies in a great deal from one person to another. The standards of conduct and methods of doing things differ from one society to another and there can never be a single standard of conduct for all societies; we must make ethical decisions therefore based on each situation. Relativism requires that we judge an individual who acted immorally by the standards of his culture and not our own (Cook, 1999).
Introduction Ethics is the theory of human behavior that could be seen from right or wrong and as long as it was rational and doesn’t harm other. Ethics have a strong relation to the Moral, and moral have a strong relation toward the Culture. Ethics shape the way we live, what should we do, and also show us whether it was right or wrong behavior. Ethics also act as the measurement for everyday live whether it was good or not. Professional ethics is the characteristic of how should the professional do toward its profession.
He believed in the importance of teleology, which is the study of ends, and all other things being claimed is considered as ends. The other aspect of his theory states justice as fairness or lawfulness. Law encourages people to perform nobly. He draws a distinction between virtue and justice; the former being one’s moral state and latter being the relation one holds with the society. He has divided justice into two parts, particular justice and general justice.
Lon Fuller is one of the prominent jurists who defended the notion that law has to take into consideration of morality in order to constitute its validity. He divided morality into two categories, which is to say, morality of aspiration and morality of duty. Morality of aspiration is the morality of excellence, of the good life, of the fullest realization of human powers. It has to do with our efforts to make the best use of our short
An eye for an eye. Are you morally correct in doing this? Morals can be described as, the principles that we follow, to help us differentiate between what is right and what is wrong. Throughout our lives and very existence we have to make choices, which may be good or bad, depending on the given situation. We often judge other people on
based on this there exist various philosophies related to Utilitarianism, Justice and Rights which explain how individual create ethical standards. The philosophies divides assumptions of ethics into two types- teleological and deontological approaches. This approaches differ in terms of judging ethical behavior. Teleological philosophies deals with moral worth of behavior determined by the consequences of the behavior. Utilitarianism come under teleological philosophy which connects to morality based on consequences and not on motives or intensions.
“Evil is a choice and without God there will be no basis or morality” How do we define morality? Morality for me is being unselfish and humanitarianism. Having the ability to know and being able fulfill your responsibilities and duties in an ethical and equitable way. Morality requires self-assessment and self-realizations, in other words being moral means knowing your limitations – being able to determine what is right from wrong which can only be done by assessing your actions and gauging the result of it - if it has negative results which can cause sorrow or pain to someone, then it is wrong but if it has positive effects or results then it will be considered as morally right or ethical. Having or not having a concept of morality, you cannot deny the fact that every action has its corresponding consequences.
Different from consequentialism, people who tend to have the mind set of a deontologist believe that you should do your ethical duty, regardless of the outcome. Immanuel Kant designed ‘The Categorical Imperative’ theory which was associated with the fact that it was commanding us to practice our morals and desires in a specific way which was exercised through two rules. Kamm (2000) claims that these components were to ‘(1) treat persons as ends in themselves and (2) do not treat them as mere means’. Kamm is basically suggesting that we seek happiness of others, as that is morally right, however fulfill capacities of one’s own intellect. From following both of these we arrive at an imperative and it is categorical.
1.0 Introduction Ethics can be defined as ‘the study of morals in human conduct’ or ‘the rules of conduct recognized as appropriate to a particular profession or area of life’ (Jones, 2009). According to Concise Oxford Dictionary (1978), ethics is the relating to morals and the treating of moral questions. Abdul Rahman (2003) further explained that ethics also denotes a philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. From all these circumscription on ethics, it can be seen that ethics is relatively important for society. Thus, the ethical values shall be developed in the society.
Ethics is a formal study of morality and moral standards of particular group such as engineering ethics, medical ethics, etc. Consequentialist theories emphasis consequences of actions. Besides, consequentialist theories assess good and bad consequences. Act-utilitarianism which encourage choosing action with greatest net benefit over costs while rule-utilitarianism encourage choosing rule with greatest net benefit. Consequentialist theories have practical difficulties such as assessing chance occurrences, measuring on common scale and distribution of benefits may seem unfair.