The Quadrangular Tournament of the early 1900s consisted of many teams, all grouped by religion, who competed in cricket. This tournament really symbolized the religious divide, and people began to realize the political tensions cricket was creating during the late 30s and early 40s. An editorial in the sports journal, Indian Cricket, observed that the tournament had “degenerated into religious rivalry,” and “(stirred) up religious fanaticism” (Document 7). The great leader, Mohandas Gandhi, also found dissatisfaction with the tournament. He couldn’t comprehend why teams would be formed based on religion, as opposed to ancestry or institution (Document 8).
The symbolism of this separation can be shown in “Those Extraordinary Twins” when Twain makes the twins conjoined, their skin color different, and gave them different ideologies. In “Those Extraordinary Twins” Twain’s first symbolic representation of America is placing the twins in the same body. What this symbolizes is how there are different factions within the twin’s body just like there are in the United States in the Civil War. Both personalities are represented by the same body but both at times must concede to the others wishes because fundamentally they are responsible for each other’s body that they share. This shared body represents how the landmass of the United States was our body as a nation, but we had two different “personalities” or ways of life and had to put up with one another like the twins have done their whole lives.
Gandhi advocated boycott of English courts of law and British educational institutions as part of the Non Cooperation Movement. During his trial post Chauri Chaura, Gandhi said that the British advent in India systematically ruined the cottage industry that was vital for the sustenance of the villages, the British legal system only ensured a systematic exploitation of India’s masses. (Gandhi) The Writings of Jim Corbett Amidst this cacophony of dissention and debate, there is a lone voice that is neither hegemonic nor worshipful- that is the voice of Jim Corbett. Hunter and tracker, Jim Corbett published his memoirs The Maneaters of Kumaon in 1944 and as Ruskin Bond puts it, “Corbett’s exploits brought him fame as a hunter. His book turned him into a legend.” (Corbett) The
The Mughal dynasty itself was stripped of all recognition. The associated martial elites suffered a permanent loss of prestige as Indians of succeeding generations. Additionally, the consequence of the mutiny plowed the seeds of Indian nationalism into the minds of the Indian elites. In spite of the fact that some historians including Devji disagree on such a view, others do agree that the significance of the mutiny to the Indian nationalism. Duffett and others contend that the mutiny completely destroyed the fragile relations between the British and the Indians when the British made efforts to build a closer tie between the two groups with education and the liberation of the civil service.
Lots of Christian Missionaries came to India. Also, the British kept taking over Indian states. But the thing that really started it was that the cartridges were made from cow and pig grease which was against Hindu and Muslim culture and belief. The Indians certainly didn’t like this and revolted. It became very violent.
War broke out between the Sunni and Shi’ites after a Shi’ite leader claimed the title of Imam and began to establish Shia rule throughout the Middle East. Unfortunately, the conflict between the Sunni and the Shi’ite is one that still goes on today. When Europeans were brought into the Middle East as advisors and trade partners to the Ottomans, the culture in that region changed further. European military tactics and weapons were adopted, direct trade was established, and modernization became the goal of Ottoman society. In India, there was also religious turmoil.
Strongly established ideological disagreements and cultural variances have remained at the forefront of struggle dating back thousands of years, albeit the form of government and societal composition. In Gandhi 's "Hind Swaraj," Gandhi outlines his explicit and adversarial outlook surrounding the brittle relationship between the British Empire and India, along with his opinions on modernization and the methods of resistance India should engage. Firstly, the title of the text refers to Indian self-rule; meaning, the people of India should have absolute and unimpeded control of their government. It is essential to note that at the time of Gandhi 's writing, the British Empire ruled over India. Gandhi advocated for an India that is self-governed in accordance with Indian principles, values, and practices.
“Alienated groups were the Rajputs (a sect of Hindu warriors), the Jats (a distant branch of the Rajputs), and the Marāthās (a sect of Hindus from Maharashtra, a region in west-central India). The Marāthās, in particular, became so enraged that they eventually gained their independence from the Mughals and established their own empire,” (Gale). The departure of the Marāthās proves the lack of religious tolerance the Mughals had at times. The Marāthās were so enraged at the lack of acceptance that they left the empire rendering it smaller and weaker. This is just one example of the Mughals not only only neglecting to practice religious tolerance, but how refusing to accept all people for their beliefs backfired in the empire’s overall growth and unity.
In August, Lee was appointed to the Continental Congress, and with his great oratorical skill he and others began to move American thinking from subservience to independence. “In 1776, Lee offered the Resolution for Independence to the Committee of the Whole at the Second Continental Congress. The resolution declared "that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." By July, the Congress had voted for independence.” ("Richard Henry
The Quartering Act disrespected the privacy of Americans (Document 5). Moreover, this act allowed British soldiers to barge in on the colonists’ home life, forcing them to provide food, utensils, bedding, firewood, and other objects for the soldiers. In addition to this, the Quartering Act showed that the British were disinterested in how Americans lived their lives in their homes and purposefully sabotaged the colonists’ leadership in their homes, showing that the British controlled the colonists’ homes. The Stamp Act also demonstrated that the British were apathetic towards the colonists’ opinions (Document 6). The Stamp Act taxed newspapers and pamphlets, which outraged the colonists.
The Sons of Liberty club sprang up to oppose the tax, so they burned the stamps and drove out all the stamp collectors. The Boston Sons of Liberty, headed by Sam Adams, was one of the most uncontrollable patriots in the country. Townshend Acts: •Named after the Chancellor Charles Townshend became the birth of six new laws. The motivation for these acts was to use the money to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would stay loyal to Great Britain. Mainly so that the governors and judges would punish the province of New York for failing to obey the Quartering Act.
In the wake of this bloody uprising, the British government effectively abolished the Company in 1858 after peace had been All of its administrative and taxing powers, along with its possessions and armed forces, were taken over by the Crown. This was the start of the British Raj, a period of direct British colonial rule over India which continued until independence in 1947. The British’s measures to stop the rebellion proved to work, but came with a toll. The financial crisis caused by the mutiny led to a reorganization of the Indian administration’s finances. The rebellion had an effect on the people of India as well.
Constantine and the Christians, the Jews of the Himyarite Dynasty in Arabia, the Manicheists who tried to court the Persians, and even the Zoroastrians who were keen to court their Iranian overlords, all sought to solidify their power, control, and government over regions of conquered peoples by using religion as an emulsifier of different tribal/cultural groups and a tool of state control. Each religion created empires of varying sizes and strength that were bound by the socio-political idea of religion and conversion of the conquered (especially in the case of Christianity). In this light, Islam did not seal the end of Late Antiquity, but rather continued one of its most famous features: conquest and expansion using religion as a justification. The Islamic conquests, so often viewed as the ending of Late Antique era, fit precisely into this mold. By conquering new peoples and forcing their conversion to Islam as a way to strengthen