In the mid-1600s, the New England Puritans had a vision: they were to create the perfect Christian church and settlement, one that was made according to their interpretation of the original church Jesus had visualized. They were a very religious group and wanted to build a place of refuge for themselves. Unlike the colonist of the Chesapeake Bay colonies, they did not immigrate to make a fortune. The main reason the Puritans traveled to America was because they wanted to build a “City Upon a Hill”, since they were persecuted in England for their beliefs. From the 1630s to the 1660s, the Puritan’s beliefs greatly influenced the political, economical, and social development of the New England colonies.
Firstly, Why was witchcraft illegal, why witchcraft stopped being viewed as a crime? The witchcraft in 1735 made a complete switch in attitudes. Penalties for the practice of witchcraft was usually believed by many famous and important people to be an impossible crime, that was replaced by penalties for the lie of witchcraft. The witchcraft of 1735 stayed in force in Britain into the 20th century, because of the illegal ways of telling witchcraft of 1951. (Wikipedia) During the 16th century, many people believed that witchcraft, rather than the workings of God's will, offered better reason of sudden and unexpected bad fortune, such as the death of a child, bad harvests, or the death of cows and bulls.
During the 1730s and 1740s the Great Awakening was a religious revival that lead by the Protestants. The main idea of the revivals was to preach a new idea of being reborn which meant that one must except Jesus Christ as their lord and savior. Once that occurred the people in return they will be forever saved and be forgiven for the sins they have committed in the past and the ones they will commit in the future. The text the Itinerants Chapter 2 from the Great Awakening PDF is a great text to read for information on the Great Awakening. The text shows how people like George Whitefield and others like him reshaped the landscape of the religious world.
Do you want to be hanged because you are practicing witchcraft? The Salem Witch Trial Hysteria happened in the year of 1692 in Salem, Massachusetts. The story is that the people of Salem, Massachusetts were Puritans. The Puritans thought that they were going to be like a “city upon a hill” which meant they thought that they were going to make it look like they were more perfect than everyone else and they were closer to God. They made it like this because they believed that every word in the Bible was the true word of God and was to be followed to the exact letter of every word.
The Law and the Church were the same and initially it was only formed of puritans, more specifically, free white male puritans. The puritans were a radical religious group which had immigrated to the Bay Colony from England during the reign of Elizabeth I. who seen the danger in their beliefs. They believed they were ‘God’s chosen people’ sent to reform and purify the Church of England. Subsequently, they were convinced that the devil was constantly trying to test their devotion and loyalty to God, thus the strong beliefs in witchcraft. As mentioned before, fear was infectious and the villagers were already on edge with political instability, so when Abigail Williams accused Tituba, Reverend Parris’ black slave from Barbados, of witchcraft, mass hysteria broke out and the seed of paranoia was planted.
Puritans are Europeans who escaped religious persecution from the Church of England. The Puritans age likely varies from children to adults. However, it’s apparent that Winthrop is appealing more towards Puritan males to create their ideal utopia. Winthrop evokes God to entice the colonist to fruitfully colonize the land. He uses nationalism, religion, and imagery to entice the colonist into creating a bountiful colony.
This took away many diseases that the new settlers had never been exposed to (pg. 58). Their laws were heavily rendered from the Bible. Being Puritans, they sought to reform the Church of England. They did this through strict laws and harsh punishment.
He describes the ‘Romanists’ using quite vicious language to get his point across. Using words such as wicked and princes of hell, Luther successfully illustrates his main criticisms of the Catholic church of how they have restricted reform and “practiced all their villainy wickedness” with the protection of the three walls. The first criticism Luther makes is about the hierarchal structure of the church and the separation it creates. He calls this the first wall. It is Luther’s belief that all Christians are equal in the eyes of god.
Luther was a former Catholic monk who wrote the 95 Thesis document and nailed it on the door of the Catholic Church of Wittenberg. Once this happened many people all throughout Germany began to react to his convictions. He exposed the church for what he believed to be corrupt. Different protestant denominations began to spring up and they were in conflict with other Christian sects about the matter of how best to worship God.
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, is a Puritan sermon from the eighteenth century during the Great Awakening. During this time, Puritans had strayed from the church due to the church’s strict guidelines and regulations and begun to embrace more secular thought. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, was written to motivate people to join the newly refined church that embraced these secular thoughts. Jonathan Edwards uses rhetorical devices throughout his sermon to show God’s wrath on sinners and to instill the fear of God in Puritans. Jonathan Edward’s was a well respected clergyman of eighteenth century New England.