In this test, primary halides precipitate the fastest while secondary halides need to be heated in order for a reaction to occur. Comparison of the rates of precipitation of the obtained product to standard 1° and 2° bromide solutions will show whether the product is a primary or secondary
With the perfect conditions water boils at “212°F: Full rolling boil. ”(Lopez,K) Another factor in boiling point is any impurities residing the the water itself. “For instance, if water comes to a boil at exactly 100 degrees Celsius at 1 atmosphere, it means that is pure and does not contain any impurities. If the boiling point differs, it must mean that the water is impure.
The purpose of this lab is to observe the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium metal. When the substances are reacted over water, the products produced are a salt in aqueous solution and a gas. While the salt remains in the water as part of a solution, the gas produced will float to the top. Though water vapor pressure will affect the pressure of the gas in the eudiometer, it is possible to apply Dalton’s law of partial pursues to find the dry pressure of the gas. When the dry pressure is determined, the volume of the gas at STP can then be determined and what the experimental volume of one mole of the gas would be at STP.
Introduction: Freezing point depression is a colligative property that calculates the decrease of the freezing point when any solute is added to a solvent. When determining changes in freezing point, solute concentration is measured in molality which is moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. The concentration unit moles per kilogram is temperature independent, because mass does not vary with temperature. The decrease in freezing point of the pure solvent is proportional to the molality of the particles of solute and is represented by the following equation: ΔTf=
Dalton’s law, as described before, states that the sum of the partial pressures of each component in a solution – two or more volatile compounds – is equal to the total pressure. As this now includes more than one compound when separating volatile substances from each other, fractional distillation must be used. Fractional distillation, which can be viewed as a series of simple distillations, is a method used to separate volatile impurities from its solvent. The main difference is that a column is introduced between distillation flask and head to separate the liquids from each other. This column – of a large surface area with glass or ceramic – provides ample contact between the vapor and liquid phases.
So if 0.38 is divided by 0.49 and multiplied by 100 then the percent yield for Zinc Sulfide would be 77.6%. When it comes to Sodium Chloride, the theoretical yield is 0.58 grams and the actual yield is 0.45 grams. So when 0.45 grams is divided by 0.58 grams and multiplied by 100, the percent yield would be 77.5% of Sodium chloride. The actual yield is directly taken from the mass of the products in the experiment while the theoretical yield is determined by using stoichiometric calculations. To determine the theoretical yield, the reactants should be converted from grams to moles based on the coefficients in the chemical equation and the moles should be incorporated into the mass of the reactants.
This is simply a chart plotting the binding energy of an atom as a function of its atomic number (“Nuclear Binding”). The maximum in the graph around the atomic number of iron illustrates the transition from fission to fusion. Atoms with atomic numbers less than that of iron will require energy to be split apart as the binding energies of their constituent atoms are smaller, whereas atoms with atomic numbers greater than that of iron will produce energy when they split apart as the binding energies of their constituent atoms are larger (“Nuclear
Aims of experiment • Determine the rate constants for hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl in solvent mixtures of different composition (50/50 V/V isopropanol/water and 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water) • Examine the effect of solvent mixture composition on the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl Introduction With t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, being a tertiary halogenoalkane, it is predicted that (CH3)3CCl reacts with water in a nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN1 mechanism), where Step 1 is the rate-determining step. The reaction proceeds in a manner as shown
If the concentration of the H+ ion is equal to the concentration of the OH- ion, the solution is said to be ________. a. Acidic c. alkaline (basic) b. Neutral d. saturated 11. What is the concentration of a solution that contains 10.0 moles of HCl in 5.50 L of water? a. 1.82 M c.
Hydrophobic & Hydrophilic Molecules 1. Hydrocarbons made up of solely of hydrogen and carbon atoms 2. Hydrophilic is water loving and are compounds that will interact with water 3. Hydrophobic is water fearing and compounds that do not interact with water 2.7 Acids and Bases 1. Acid is any substance that yields hydrogen ions when put in water solutions 2.
A double-replacement reaction also involves the transfer of anions. However, unlike a single-replacement reaction, a double-replacement reaction has two anions being intrechanged. An example of this type of reaction would be the combination of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride: HCl + NaOH --> H2O +
ZnCl2(aq) + Na2S(aq)= ZnS(s) + NaCl(aq). Ionic reactions occurred between ions in aqueous solution. A reaction occurs when a pair of ions come together to produce at least one of the following: a precipitate, a gas, water, or some other non‐ionized substance. An examples of ionic reactions, if a compound is soluble in water then it should be shown as being in aqueous solution, or left as separate ions.
Observations The purpose of this experiment was to be able to synthesize triphenylmethyl bromide from triphenylmethanol by a trityl carbocation intermediate. During the experiment, 0.100 g of triphenylmethanol was placed into a small test tube. The triphenylmethanol looked like a white powder. Next 2 mL of acetic acid was added to the test tube and the solution turned a cloudy white color.
Introduction The purpose of this week’s lab was to enhance our understanding of the Grignard reagents that were examined in lecture. In this lab, a Grignard reagent will be prepared through the reaction of magnesium turnings and bromobenzene. Instead of isolating the product it will then be combined with benzophenone, which will give the final product of triphenylmethanol. Procedure