Chomsky proposes that children should be exposed to the complexities of grammar at an early age to enable them to procure linguistic competence (Shaffer, 2011). Aspect of Lifespan Development (Module Focus)- Cognitive and Language Development • Universal Grammar (UG) • Language Acquisition Device (LAD) • Surface Structure • Deep Structure (Schaffer, 2011) Process (Expansion of Theory Components)- While Chomsky, suggests that some grammar concepts are innate, he advocates that children be allowed to use this knowledge to further develop through experience. Chomsky’s UG theory is that all grammar, regardless of language, shares certain attributes such as past, present and future tenses and noun and verb use. By engaging in conversation with adults, the children can understand patterns and guidelines for correct grammar use. This concept is Chomsky’s LAD, “whereby children set about constructing the grammar of their native language from the speech they hear” (Shaffer, 2011).
The child is exposed to a spoken language and the Phonological system starts working. This system is responsible of recognizing the sound of a language. This spoken language entails phonemes, phonotactics, stress pattern and intonation system all of them included in the same received sound. Therefore, children have to differentiate all these elements every time they are exposed to the speech of those close to them and somehow children do that and they are not only able to differentiate the elements found in their native languages but also switch languages with this language’s characteristics if they are exposed to another language
A classroom houses both teachers and students from diverse cultural, geographical and social backgrounds. Another reason for language diversity, which can impose into the classroom, is time. I will now endeavour to explain, in a little more detail, how these factors have influenced our language, and why we need to be aware of this in today’s classroom. It is most certainly, always the case, that a child will learn whatever language they have been exposed to. Young learners are like sponges, they will absorb all this information that surrounds them.
It is possible if there is opportunity for them to get use the language in the speech community peaking the language. Besides, English has many interrelationships with various aspect of life owned by human being, such as: politics, economics, social, culture, technology, and especially education. In Indonesia, English is considered as the first foreign language and is taught formally from elementary school up to the university level. English is became a subject in curriculum that has to be learnt by students. English as a foreign language in Indonesia is acquired through learning process.
IELTS has two test versions: One is Academic - For people who wish to pursue higher education or professional registration, and General Training for those people who are migrating to Australia, Great Britain or Canada or applying for secondary education, training programs and to do a job in an English-speaking atmosphere. Both versions
Everyone of these disciplines has many vocabulary and expressions that can be used. For that reason, linguists brought this term ESP and it started to developed through the passage of time accidentally. It is an abbreviation for ( English for Specific Purposes). It is related to the need of the learners. What, where, when and how they need ESP for?.
In our world today, the education in general and language teachers of young learners in particular, are facing challenges and opportunities. With the expansion of teaching English to young learners, young language teachers are still the most who faces challenges and opportunities especially those who deals with the switch to secondary level. With the increasing numbers of learners a foreign language, published books and a mixed-methods approach in teaching, teachers find themselves in new situations of these challenges. These challenges emerged as affecting large numbers teachers in different educational contexts such as dealing with different language skills, teaching speaking or writing and even motivating learners. Clearly, all these challenges back to various reasons either caused by teachers or learners.
In addition, there are so many conventions governing the ways in which varieties of English differ. The different aspects of this task develop at different stages of life, with some continuing into adulthood. (Barbara Mayor, communicating in English, growing up with English, 91-92) Mothers play an important role in helping their babies to learn their mother tongue without even realizing by talking to them. The most effective ways to let a baby easily pick the language up is by hearing words repeated over and over, loud and clear. Here’s an actual example which was audio-recorded just a few minutes after one baby was born: “oh you are gorgeous, you are gorgeous, you are, you are, you are, oh yes you are…hello …hello… aren’t you beautiful…” The baby wasn’t paying attention, but it had stopped crying and it had its eyes shut.
Whole-class learning is able to proceed largely because students are able to learn when the task comes within the range of their current knowledge. Mixed groups at professional courses pose special problems for both learners and teacher. Learners in a mixed group class at professional courses possess different levels of linguistic and communicative competencies. Most teachers understand in practice that the learners have different linguistic standards in English language, i.e. learning ability and ability to perform in English.
Nowadays, there is no doubt that technology has become a substantial element in many pupils’ lives, accordingly, the education systems have incorporated into their curriculum new instructions that try to implement these tools and toe the line with the rest of the world. However, there are still some English teachers who prefer to teach vocabulary in their classrooms using only oral and written instruction, hence, the traditional method, while other English teachers are using technology such as digital multimedia in their classrooms. The current digital and technological era is one of the main characteristics that stimulate these changes in the process of